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Table 5 The effects of urbanization and local variables on the presence of bees in urban gardens and green roofs

From: A review of diversity of bees, the attractiveness of host plants and the effects of landscape variables on bees in urban gardens

References Country Garden Urbanization Key result
[1] Sweden Urban garden Negative Local variables were more important than landscape variables
[66] USA Urban garden Adding wild native species to the garden did not attract pollinators
[85] Sweden Urban garden Negative Seed set for C. persicifolia decreased with urbanization
[97] USA Green roof Negative Green spaces around green roofs increased bee abundance
[102] USA Urban garden Negative Bombus and Megachile were affected by local variables
[9] Switzerland Green roof Negative Green roof size has no effects on bee populations
[39] Sweden Urban garden Garden size does not affect pollinator populations
[98] Belgium Urban garden Negative Bumblebee visiting rate decreased with the increasing amount of green space around gardens
[84] UK Urban garden Regardless of the origin, the increase in flowers attracts bumblebees
[54] USA Urban garden In-garden flowers have a positive effect on coneflower pollination
[30] UK Urban garden Garden size does not affect pollinator populations
[33] UK Urban garden Garden size does not affect pollinator populations
[79] USA Urban garden Neutral Garden size does not affect pollinator populations
[96] Australia Urban garden Negative Colletidae were almost absent from residential landscapes
[59] Canada Green roof Negative Roof height reduced brood cells
[81] USA Urban garden Negative Garden size positively affected small bees
[28] Canada Urban garden Garden size does not affect pollinator populations
[16] USA Urban garden Negative Urbanization is associated with reduced flower visitor richness
[6] Poland Urban garden Negative The presence of a large green patch around the gardens has a positive effect on bee presence
[95] Germany Urban garden Positive Local variables were strongly related to flower visitation rates
[60] Australia Urban garden Neutral Local and landscape variables were not associated with bees' populations
[24] UK Urban garden Neutral Bumblebees were negatively correlated with areas cultivated for vegetables
[36] USA Urban garden Negative Diversity and abundance of Bombus spp. Decreased with urbanization
[48] USA Urban garden Negative Bees were positively associated with distance to the city center
[23] USA Urban garden Neutral Visits to one species increased with urbanization but visits to others decreased
[78] USA Urban garden Negative The diversity of bees decrease with increasing flower abundance
[47] Austria Green roof Roof height did not affect bee communities
[87] Philippine Urban garden Negative Home gardens surrounded by woody habitats showed higher bee richness
[91] USA Urban garden Positive The presence of green spaces around the gardens positively affected bees
[11] USA Urban garden Negative Canopy cover within gardens negatively affected bee abundance
[7] USA Urban garden Neutral Garden size positively affected small bees
[44] China Urban garden Negative Urbanization negatively affected Gentiana dahurica
[38] Ghana Urban garden Neutral Fewer cavity-nesting bees were found in urban than in rural areas
[52] France Urban garden Negative Gardens surrounded by other gardens showed higher bee richness
[22] USA Urban garden Neutral Positive effect on non-native species but negative on native species
[5] USA Urban garden Negative Natural cover around gardens increases bee richness
[68] USA Urban garden Negative Suburban landscapes are suboptimal for B. impatiens
[50] Austria Urban garden Neutral Flower abundance was the most important factor as a local variable
[18] Argentina Green roof Negative Street cover in the landscape negatively affected total richness
[8] USA Urban–rural Negative Urban areas negatively impact bee communities
[61] Mexico Urban garden Neutral Floral visitor abundance was influenced by habitat type and season
[20] USA Urban garden Positive Barren lands around gardens negatively affected bee populations
[12] USA Urban garden Neutral Bee abundance and richness did not change with increasing floral resources
[74] USA Urban garden Positive The percent urban cover positively affected B. vosnesenskii