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Table 4 Determinants of crop–livestock diversification and its impact on food security

From: Crop–livestock diversification in the mixed farming systems: implication on food security in Northern Ghana

Variable OLS model Tobit model
Coefficient Coefficients Marginal effects
Household-specific
 Sex of household head 0.272 (0.057)*** 0.389 (0.267) 0.272 (0.057)
 Marital status of household head 0.074 (0.098)   
 Age of household head − 0.003 (0.001)** − 0.015 (0.004)*** − 0.003 (0.001)**
Socioeconomic
 Occupation of household head 0.359 (0.250) − 0.511 (0.704) − 0.359 (250)
 Irrigation 0.017 (0.154)   
 Farm size 0.008 (0.003)** 0.206 (0.037)** 0.008 (0.003)
 land ownership 0.021 (0.007)** 0.357 (0.415) 0.021 (0.007)
Institutional factors
 Credit access 0.159 (0.081)* 0.276 (0.211) 0.057 (0.081)
 Extension service 0.094 (0.044)** 0.345 (0.126)** 0.094 (0.044)**
 Farmer groups 0.065 (0.046) 0.025 (0.121) 0.065 (0.046)
 Off-farm employment 0.095 (0.044)** 0.587 (0.021)*** 0.095 (0.046)**
Crop diversity index   0.168 (0.070)**  
Livestock diversity index   0.069 (0.182)  
Crop–livestock diversity index   1.162 (0.514)**  
 Constant 1.933 (0.538)*** 8.380 (1.552)***  
 sig_1   0.291 (0.019)***  
 Sig_2   0.649 (0.072)***  
 rho_12   0.371 (0.198)**  
 R-squared = 0.435    
  1. ***, ** and * denote significant levels at 1, 5 and 10 percent, respectively