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Table 3 Consequences of food insecurity in the villages of Dehgolan Township

From: Food security assessment in rural areas: evidence from Iran

Components Variables ID code
Physical-skeletal Agricultural land use changes C1
Horticultural land use changes C2
The weakening of the agricultural sector and the prosperity of service activities in the village C3
Economic Expansion of land and stock exchange transactions C4
Increases in land, housing, and rental prices C5
Increasing the price of services C6
Increased inflation and rental income C7
Increasing income gap between rural and urban areas C8
Social-cultural Expansion of rural–urban migrations C9
Reduction of social capital in rural areas C10
Reduction of participatory and group activities in the village C11
Satisfaction with the quality of educational, social and cultural services C12
Satisfaction with the quality of health services C13
Satisfaction with the quality of the living environment and welfare services C14
Satisfaction with the quality of facilities and infrastructure C15
Satisfaction with the quality and quantity of services of rural financial institutions C16
Environmental Sustainability of water resources (improper operation, irrigation at inappropriate times C17
Sustainability of soil and air resources (limited use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, burning of crop residues) C18
Disruption of the natural ecosystem (burning of trees, hunting of birds, non-compliance with the number of livestock and pastures, pressure on natural resources and loss of ecological potential of resources) C19
Declining groundwater resources C20
Drying of rivers, springs, and wells due to over-exploitation C21
Drilling unlicensed wells C22
Pressure on water resources and the occurrence of hazards (ground subsidence, landslides, erosion, etc.) C23