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Table 1 Variables’ definition and their descriptive statistics

From: Does fertilizer adoption enhance smallholders’ commercialization? An endogenous switching regression model from northern Ethiopia

VariableVariables’ definitionObsMeanStd. dev.MinMax
Fert_adopAdoption of fertilizer (yes = 1, 0 otherwise)6260.700.4601
Frt_hacFertilizer use (kg/ha)6269418801600
Gsale_paritOutput market participation (yes = 1, 0 otherwise)6260.590.4901
MktsurMarketed surplus of household (Birr)62616,79947,565− 86,57034,4166
psexF1Gender of the household head (female = 1)6260.280.4501
pageAge of the household head (years)62657.8415.232099
peduHEducational status (illiterate = 1, 0 otherwise)6260.9100.01101
FamsizeFamily size of household (number)6265.532.53112
male_adultThe number of male adults6261.931.4608
female_adultThe number of female adults6261.551.1806
Oxen_qtyThe number of oxen ownership6261.081.0808
TLU_NoxThe non-ox tropical livestock (TLU)6263.573.73026.5
AcceinfoAccess to information (yes = 1)6260.250.4301
Ownland_haHousehold owns land size in hectare6261.020.760.035.5
farmsize_haHousehold operated land size in hectare6261.120.870.067.55
Acces_irrgAccess to irrigation (yes = 1)6260.300.4601
distmkt_hrDistance to nearby market (hour)6261.280.9504.5
distanceto~tDistance to plot (hour)6260.500.400.084
distworda_hDistance to district office (hour)6262.811.51012
Cropin_AjuTotal crop income (Birr/hh)62618,42855,222301,111,911
pcapcrcon~uPer capita crop consumption (Birr)62378517452.4218964.
SRF_3yrmeanRainfall of previous 3 years to cropping season (mm)626102.2938.5046.97205.1
SstdevRF_3~nRainfall variability (std.dev) of previous 3 years to cropping season (mm)62612.884.800.76819.70