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Table 2 Descriptions and expected sign of the inefficiency variables

From: Analysis of technical efficiency in maize production in Guji Zone: stochastic frontier model

Variables Descriptions and measures Expected sign
Gender of the household head (SEX) This is a dummy variable taking a value of 1 if the household head is male and 0 otherwise
Age of the household head (AGE) This is continuous variable. It is used as an approximation for farming experience of the households
Years of schooling of the household head (EDU) Educated farmers are expected to acquire, analyze & evaluate information on different inputs, outputs & market opportunities much faster than illiterate farmers
Farm income (INC) This is a continuous variable and shows the amount of income the farmers make per year from their farm
Livestock ownership(NLV) This variable represents the number of livestock owned by the household measured in tropical livestock unit (TLU). Livestock can serve as a means of tillage, harvesting and transporting inputs and outputs
Agricultural extension workers’ contact (EXT) Extension workers visit helps the farmer to support them to use better method of farming, recommended amount of chemical fertilizer utilization among others and on how to improve the farm productivity in general
Access to credit (CRD) This is a dummy variable which takes 1 if the farmer has access to credit and zero otherwise
Land size owned (LSH) This is a continuous variable and shows the amount of land the farmers owned  + 
Seed types used This is a dummy variable which takes 1 if the farmer adopted improved seed and zero otherwise
Distance from home to farm (DFM) It is the average time which the farmers must travel from residence to their plots. This is measured in terms of the minutes it takes on foot