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Table 1 Hypothesized variables, descriptions, and measurements in relation to crop–livestock diversity

From: Determinants of crop–livestock diversification in the mixed farming systems: evidence from central highlands of Ethiopia

Acronyms of variables Variable class Variables, units and measurement Hypothesized
Sign
Dependent variable (Yi)    
 Crop–livestock diversity Continuous Crop–livestock diversification index  
Independent variable (Xi)    
 AGE Continuous Age of a household head in years (−/+)
 SEX Discrete Household head, 1 = male, 0 = female (Male +)
 EDUC Discrete Education in year of schooling (+)
 HHLAB Continuous Household labor in adults (+)
 LAND Continuous Size of land in ha (−)
 LIVES Continuous Livestock holding in TLU (+)
 NONFINC Continuous Annual non-farm income, ETB yr−1 (±)
 FINC Continuous Annual farm income, ETB yr−1 (±)
 LROUT Continuous Land rent-out in ha (−)
 OFERT Continuous Amount of organic fertilizer used in ton (+)
 IRRIG Continuous Cultivated irrigation land in ha (+)
 IFERT Continuous Inorganic fertilizer applied in kg (+)
 IMPSEED Continuous Improved seed in kg (+)
 CREDIT Discrete Access to credit, Yes = 1, No = 0 (+)
 EXTCONT Continuous Extension contact in days per month (+)
 LTSECUR Discrete Land tenure security Yes = 1, 0 otherwise (Secure +)
 SOIL Discrete Fertility of soil (high, medium, or low) +
 DMKT Continuous Distance to the local market in hr (−)
 DROAD Continuous Distance to the asphalt road in hr (−)
 DKEBELE Continuous Distance to the Kebele office in hr (−)
 SLOPE Discrete Slope class (steep, medium, flat) (−/+)
 SOCIAL Discrete Social status, Yes = 1, No = 0 (+)
  1. The official exchange rate of money during data collection as 1 US dollar = 21.5 Ethiopian birr
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