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Table 3 Number (and  %) of smallholder farmers who have implemented adaptation measures in response to climate change

From: Climate change impacts and adaptation among smallholder farmers in Central America

Adaptation measures   Coffee farmers Maize/beans farmers
Turrialba Los Santos Acatenango Chiquimula Yoro Total Acatenango Chiquimula Choluteca Yoro Total
n (farmers who took an action to cope with changes in temperature and/or precipitation)   63 115 62 9 19 268 42 27 58 36 168
Agroforestry and restoration Plant trees 16 (25.4) 73 (63.5) 26 (41.9) 3 (33.3) 11 (57.9) 129 (48.1) 11 (26.2) 7 (25.9) 25 (43.1) 11 (30.6) 56 (33.1)
Restore degraded areas 1 (1.6) 1 (0.9) 1 (1.6)   2 (10.5) 5 (1.9)    7 (12.1) 3 (8.3) 11 (6.4)
Stop cultivating certain areas 2 (3.2)   1 (1.6)    3 (1.1) 2 (4.8)   4 (6.9) 3 (8.3) 9 (5.2)
Agroecological practices Introduce soil management and conservation practices 6 (9.5) 20 (17.4) 13 (21)   2 (10.5) 41 (15.3) 7 (16.7)   12 (20.7) 4 (11.1) 22 (13.4)
Introduce water management and conservation practices 4 (6.3) 6 (5.2) 2 (3.2)   1 (5.3) 13 (4.8) 2 (4.8)   3 (5.2)   8 (4.7)
Reduce use of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides 9 (14.3) 14 (12.2) 2 (3.2) 1 (11.1) 1 (5.3) 27 (10.1) 3 (7.1) 1 (3.7) 2 (3.5)   6 (3.5)
Reduce fertilizer use 3 (4.8) 5 (4.3) 1 (1.6)    9 (3.4) 1 (2.4)   1 (1.7)   2 (1.2)
Intensification Increase fertilizer 10 (15.9) 17 (14.8) 11 (17.7)   2 (10.5) 40 (14.9) 7 (16.7) 1 (3.7) 2 (3.5) 7 (19.4) 17 (9.9)
Increased use of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides 10 (15.9) 32 (27.8) 4 (6.5)    46 (17.2) 4 (9.5)   1 (1.7) 3 (8.3) 9 (5.2)
Cut trees 1 (1.6) 1 (0.9) 6 (9.7)    8 (3) 1 (2.4)     1 (0.6)
Increase the number of animals          2 (3.5)   2 (1.2)
New crops and technologies Change agricultural calendar 1 (1.6) 9 (7.8) 3 (4.8) 1 (11.1) 1 (5.3) 15 5.6) 5 (11.9) 3 (11.1) 7 (12.1) 12 (33.3) 26 (15.7)
Introduce new crops 3 (4.8) 1 (0.9) 7 (11.3) 2 (22.2) 3 (15.8) 16 (6) 3 (7.1) 3 (11.1) 4 (6.9) 2 (5.6) 12 (7)
Diversify production 2 (3.2) 1 (0.9) 1 (1.6)    4 (1.5)     1 (2.8) 1 (0.6)
Crop irrigation 6 (9.5) 1 (0.9) 2 (3.2)   1 (5.3) 10 (3.7) 2 (4.8) 1 (3.7)   1 (2.8) 5 (2.9)
Change variety 1 (1.6) 1 (0.9) 1 (1.6)   1 (5.3) 4 (1.5) 1 (2.4)   3 (5.2) 2 (5.6) 6 (3.5)
Change general management practices 17 (27) 28 (24.4) 15 (24.2) 4 (44.4) 4 (21.1) 68 (25.4) 11 (26.2) 10 (37) 11 (19) 7 (19.4) 41 (24.4)
Other   10 (15.9) 7 (6.1) 14 (22.6) 3 (33.3)   34 (12.7) 10 (23.8) 7 (25.9) 6 (10.3)   22 (13.4)
Mean number (± SE) of specific changes in farming practices made by farmers to cope with changes in temperature and/or precipitation   1.62 ± 0.11
a
1.89 ± 0.10
a
1.77 ± 0.13
a
- 1.53 ± 0.18
A
1.73 ± 0.13 1.67 ± 0.13
a
1.22 ± 0.08
b
1.55 ± 0.11
ab
1.56 ± 0.16
ab
1.50 ± 0.12
  1. Note that there were less than 10 maize or bean farmers surveyed in Turrialba or Los Santos, and there were no coffee farmers in Choluteca, so no data are reported for these crops in those locations
  2. Different letters within the same row denote significant differences among coffee farmers (or maize/bean farmers) across landscapes, based on ANOVAs (p < 0.05)
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