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Table 1 Description of variables.

From: Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies in Borena pastoralist communities of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia

Variable name


Livelihood diversification strategy options of households

“Y = 0”, (AG) pastoralism alone “Y = 1”, (AG + OFF) pastoralism and off-farm combination “Y = 2”, (AG + NF) Pastoralism and nonfarm combination “Y = 3”, (AG + OFF + NF) Pastoralism, off-farm and nonfarm

Age of household head

A continuous variable measured in years

Sex of household head

Sex of household head (1 = female and 0 = male)

Education of household heads

Education level of household heads in number of years

Family size of the households

The number of families in the household

Land holding size

Land holding size of the households in hectare

Livestock (TLU)

The total number of livestock in the household in tropical livestock unit

Farm input

If Farm input used by the Household 0 = no 1 = yes

extension contact

Frequency of extension contact a farmer has with extension agent in a year


Participation of the household in cooperatives (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Credit access

Credit access and use by the household (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Market access

Distance of market center from their residence in kilometers

Access to remittance

If a household has external economic support from relatives (0 = no, 1 = yes)

Dependency ratio

Dependency ratio of dependent household members over independent household members