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Table 18 Classification of artificial preservatives [44, 128,129,130]

From: A review on mechanisms and commercial aspects of food preservation and processing

  Antimicrobial agents Antioxidants agents Antienzymatic agents
Definition Inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, yeast) Inhibit atmospheric oxidation. Mainly used for the products that contains unsaturated fatty acids, oils, and lipids Prevent natural ripening process and oxidative deterioration of food by inhibiting the bacteria, parasite, fungi
Mechanism Creates unfavorable environment for microorganisms by reducing moisture content and increasing acidity Oxidation of unsaturated fats produces free radicals which can start chain reactions. In this reaction, aldehyde and ketones are produced which results in the rancid taste of foods. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates and inhibit other oxidation reactions Blocks enzymatic processes in the food that continue to metabolize after harvest. Metal chelating agents can remove the metal cofactors that many enzymes need
Applications Sorbic acid (2,4-hexadienoic acid) and potassium sorbet for the preservation of cheese, bakery products, vegetable-based products, dried fruits, beverages, and other products as well as smoked fish, margarine, salad cream, and mayonnaises. Butylated hydroxyl anisole, (BHA) for the preservation of butter, lard, meats, beer, baked goods, snacks, potato chips, nut products, dry mix for beverages Citric acid for the preservation of foods, beverages, dairy products, and pharmaceuticals
Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate for the preservation of mayonnaises, pickled vegetables, fruit preparation and fruit based drinks, dessert sauces and syrups Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) in fats and oils processing EDTA (ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid) in food processing
Lactic acid for the preservation of meats Sulfites for the preservation of beer, wines, dried foods Polyphosphates for the preservation of fresh peeled fruits and vegetables
Parabens (esters of para-hydroxy benzoic acid) for the preservation of dried meat products, cereal and potato based snacks and confectionary Vitamin E for the preservation off fruits and vegetables Polyphosphates for the preservation of fresh peeled fruits and vegetables
Nitrite (sodium nitrate) for the preservation of meat Gallates in fats and oils processing
Sulfur dioxide, sodium sulfite for the preservation of dried fruits, certain fruit juices, potatoes, and wines Ascorbyl palmitate for the preservation of sausages and chicken broths