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Table 5 Wilcoxon signed-rank test for human capital (n = 280)

From: Effect of Micro-Agricultural Financial Institutions of South Africa financial services on livelihood capital of beneficiaries in North West Province South Africa

  Ranks N Mean rank Sum of ranks Z Asymp. sig (2-tailed)
Financial management Negative ranks 1 125.00 125.00   
  Positive ranks 248 125.00 31,000.00 −15.65 .000
  Ties 24     
Marketing management Negative ranks 1 124.50 124.50   
  Positive ranks 247 124.50 30,751.50 −15.62 .000
  Ties 25     
Extension services Negative ranks 5 114.50 572.50   
  Positive ranks 223 114.50 25,533.50 −14.43 .000
  Ties 45     
Skills training Negative ranks 0 .00 .00   
  Positive ranks 238 119.50 28,441.00 −15.42 .000
  Ties 35     
Technical training Negative ranks 3 118.50 355.50   
  Positive ranks 233 118.50 27,610.50 −14.97 .000
  Ties 37     
Auctioning skills Negative ranks 1 115.00 115.00   
  Positive ranks 228 115.00 26,220.00 −15.00 .000
  Ties 44     
Project management Negative ranks 0 .00 .00   
  Positive ranks 240 120.50 28,920.00 −15.49 .000
  Ties 33     
  Total 273     
Employment opportunities created Negative ranks 0 .00 .00   
  Positive ranks 254 127.50 32,385.00 −15.93 .000
  Ties 19     
Veld management Negative ranks 0 .00 .00   
  Positive ranks 206 103.50 21,321.00 −14.35 .000
  Ties 67     
Grazing management Negative ranks 0 .00 .00   
  Positive ranks 206 103.50 21,321.00 −14.35 .000
  Ties 67     
Grain management Negative ranks 0 .00 .00   
  Positive ranks 34 17.50 595.00 −5.83 .000
  Ties 239     
Vegetable management Negative ranks 0 21.50 903.00   
  Positive ranks 42 21.50 903.00 −6.48 .000
  Ties 231     
Poultry management Negative ranks 0 .00 .00   
  Positive ranks 212 106.50 22,578.00 −14.56 .000
  Ties 61     
Piggery management Negative ranks 0 .00 .00   
  Positive ranks 210 105.50 22,155.00 −14.49 .000
  Ties 63     
Training on record-keeping Negative ranks 2 126.00 252.00   
  Positive ranks 249 126.00 31,374.00 −15.59 .000
  Ties 22     
Livestock management skills Negative ranks 2 101.50 101.50   
  Positive ranks 201 101.50 20,401.50 −14.07 .000
  Ties 71     
Treatment of diseases Negative ranks 1 98.00 98.00   
  Positive ranks 194 98.00 19,012.00 −13.82 .000
  Ties 78     
Soil management Negative ranks 3 23.00 69.00   
  Positive ranks 42 23.00 966.00 −5.81 .000
  Ties 228     
Water management Negative ranks 1 115.50 115.50   
  Positive ranks 229 115.50 26,449.50 −15.03 .000
  Ties 43     
Management training Negative ranks 0 .00 .00   
  Positive ranks 232 116.50 27,028.00 −15.23 .000
  Ties 41     
Price determination training Negative ranks 2 116.50 233.00   
  Positive ranks 230 116.50 26,795.00 −14.96 .000
  Ties 41     
Resources management training Negative ranks 1 123.00 123.00   
  Positive ranks 244 123.00 30,012.00 −15.52 .000
  Ties 28     
Equipment handling Negative ranks 4 112.00 448.00   
  Positive ranks 219 112.00 24,528.00 −14.39 .000
  Ties 50     
Crop protection Negative ranks 2 17.00 34.00   
  Positive ranks 31 17.00 527.00 −5.048 .000
  Ties 240