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Table 2 Distribution of the eleven components extracted from principal components analysis including the factor loadings of the 30 variables and the cumulative proportion of the explained variance plus eigen values

From: Diversity amongst farm households and achievements from multi-stakeholder innovation platform approach: lessons from Balaka Malawi

Variable Components
Comp1 Comp2 Comp3 Comp4 Comp5 Comp6 Comp7 Comp8 Comp9 Comp10 Comp11
Household characteristics
 Household head is female 0.0175 −0.0523 −0.5742 0.0193 0.0336 0.016 0.0718 −0.0025 −0.0145 0.1265 −0.1083
 Age of household head 0.0424 0.014 0.0341 0.6177 0.0196 0.0102 0.0834 0.0402 −0.0509 −0.0283 −0.0037
 Education attained at least primary −0.04 −0.0902 0.202 −0.0344 −0.0511 0.0361 −0.0056 −0.0894 −0.0446 0.0043 0.5846
 Married 0.0397 0.179 0.4356 −0.0933 0.0547 −0.136 −0.0174 −0.0102 0.2031 0.0003 0.0718
 Main occupation is farming −0.0934 0.1368 −0.1359 0.1058 −0.1392 −0.0043 0.5641 −0.02 0.0172 0.0699 0.1692
 Land size 0.0584 0.0224 −0.0249 0.0688 0.1344 −0.0244 0.0411 0.6367 0.007 0.0513 0.002
 Household size −0.0527 0.542 0.1222 0.023 −0.048 −0.0514 0.0459 −0.0598 0.0517 −0.044 0.0087
 Labour −0.0006 0.5538 0.0373 0.1595 −0.0381 −0.0229 −0.1297 −0.0284 −0.0805 −0.0353 −0.0535
 Farming experience 0.0126 0.0596 −0.0534 0.6241 0.0009 0.0168 −0.0588 0.0409 0.0544 0.0494 0.0023
 Credit access 0.0502 0.0496 0.0191 −0.1964 0.0401 0.5081 0.008 0.0548 −0.0711 0.2511 0.0948
 Extension access 0.0166 0.065 −0.2334 0.0309 0.1286 0.147 −0.1279 −0.269 0.2835 −0.0199 0.0214
 Group membership 0.1252 −0.0813 −0.0109 0.0701 −0.0883 −0.0029 −0.0464 −0.0858 0.3819 −0.0034 0.3542
 Received farmer training services 0.1087 0.0898 0.0961 −0.0642 0.1196 0.0422 0.1008 −0.2615 0.1307 0.5064 −0.2115
 Low-wealth category 0.139 −0.0737 0.0088 0.0308 −0.0489 0.2292 0.3455 −0.1202 −0.2657 −0.269 −0.1179
 High-wealth category −0.0256 0.1499 −0.0698 0.0697 −0.0787 0.0663 −0.5971 −0.0452 −0.148 0.0731 0.0956
Achievements and benefits from IP activities
 Improved market information 0.269 −0.1151 0.2994 0.0098 −0.2094 0.1483 −0.038 0.1972 −0.2278 0.1318 −0.0124
 Improved market access 0.558 −0.0301 0.0112 0.019 0.0037 −0.0511 0.0222 −0.0137 −0.0428 −0.0197 0.0339
 Improved income 0.4631 0.0161 −0.0513 −0.01 0.02 0.0827 −0.1071 0.0808 0.1389 −0.0728 −0.0108
 Improved conservation agriculture adoption 0.5068 0.0304 −0.0177 0.0637 −0.0112 −0.0632 0.0055 −0.0535 0.0371 0.0494 −0.06
 Improved soil fertility 0.1731 0.1012 −0.0776 −0.0057 0.1656 −0.1027 0.1308 −0.4478 −0.2695 0.1345 0.1406
 Improved crop yield 0.0279 −0.0011 0.0689 −0.0149 −0.0232 −0.0088 0.2012 0.0919 0.5861 0.029 −0.0442
 IP_savings eased credit access −0.0509 −0.0317 −0.0172 0.0941 −0.044 0.6402 −0.0504 −0.0273 0.0337 −0.1623 0.0397
 Negotiation with banks eased credit access 0.0025 0.223 −0.0468 −0.0915 0.0046 −0.1116 0.175 0.2712 −0.2236 0.1403 0.1094
 Improved trust eased credit −0.0513 −0.1105 −0.0866 0.0609 −0.1024 −0.064 −0.0743 0.1037 −0.0517 0.6476 0.0916
 Number of markets increased −0.1159 −0.0384 0.3939 0.1709 0.2175 0.2666 0.1364 −0.048 0.0066 0.1846 −0.1391
 Food produced 2012/2013 season was enough −0.06 0.0471 0.0668 0.0231 0.4937 0.034 −0.0094 −0.0575 −0.1321 0.0087 −0.0162
 Food produced 2013/2014 season was enough 0.0922 −0.073 0.0198 −0.0076 0.4662 −0.1585 0.0232 0.0538 −0.1294 −0.1431 0.3058
 Improved overall food security −0.0118 −0.0652 −0.046 0.0072 0.5444 0.0384 −0.0755 0.1253 0.129 0.0088 −0.1234
 Farmer built a house −0.0127 0.1301 −0.1833 0.0274 0.108 0.1664 0.0638 0.1072 0.0601 0.0616 0.4761
 Farmer was able to send children to school 0.1122 0.4071 −0.1482 −0.257 0.0398 0.1957 0.0437 0.1807 0.0425 −0.0639 −0.0577
Eigen values 2.677 2.401 2.002 1.944 1.920 1.856 1.716 1.656 1.616 1.446 1.400
Cumulative proportion of explained variance (%) 8.92% 16.93% 23.60% 30.08% 36.48% 42.66% 48.38% 53.91% 59.29% 64.11% 68.77%
  1. Comp component. Factor loadings 0.4 and higher are marked in italic font