Skip to main content

Table 3 Potential biological control agents

From: The worldwide status of phasmids (Insecta: Phasmida) as pests of agriculture and forestry, with a generalised theory of phasmid outbreaks

Higher class. Species Phasmid Notes References
Insecta
Diptera
Tachinidae
Biomya genalis Diapheromera femorata
Nymphs
  [45]
  Phasmophaga anetannalis Diapheromera femorata
Nymphs
Phasmid consumes egg laid on foliage [45]
  Mycteromyiella laetifica Graeffea leveri
nymphs/adults
Also a species of Megacrania is parasitised [26, 137]
  Mycteromyiella phasmatophaga Graeffea leveri
Nymphs/adults
Probably not usual host [26, 137]
  Thrixion halidayanum Leptynia hispanica   [138, 139]
  Euhallidaya sverinii Diapheromera femora
Eggs
  [140]
Insecta
Hymenoptera
Chrysididae
Mesitiopterus kahlii Diapheromera femorata
Eggs
Never recovered in sufficient number to be considered an important means of control [45]
  Cladobethylus insularis Eurycantha insularis
Eggs
  [114]
  Exova tunana Eurycantha insularis
Eggs
  [114]
Cleptidae Myrmecomimesis spp. Didymuria violescens
Egg
Podacanthus wilkinsoni
Egg
  [7]
  Myrmecomimesis sp. Anchiale austotesselata   [48]
   Ctenomorphodes tessulatus
egg
305 emerged from a field collected sample of 11,694 [88]
  Myrmecomimesis nigripedicel Ctenomorphodes tessulatus
Egg
At much lower density than M. striata [88]
  Myrmecomimesis rubrifemur Graeffea crouanii In Australia attacks Anchiale austrotesselata. Unsuccessfully introduced to Fiji. [99]
  Loboscelidia sp. Anchiale austrotesselata   [48]
  Loboscelidia sp. Ctenomorphodes tessulatus Only 6 from sample of 11,694 eggs [88]
Eupelmidae Paranastatus nigricutellatus Eady, 1956
Paranastatus verticalis Eady, 1956
Graffea crouanii
eggs
Controls up to 50 % of eggs. Seems effective on Fiji but not western Samoa [100] [46, 101, 141]
  Anastatus (Anastatus) eurycanthae Gibson, 2012 Eurycantha calcarata
eggs
  [112]
  Anastatus gratidiae Risbec, 1951 Gratidia sp.   [142]
Formicidae Tapinoma melanocephalum Graeffea crouanii
Eggs
  [25, 143]
  Pheidole megacephala Graeffea crouanii
Eggs
  [143]
Mecoptera
Bittacidae
Harpobittacus sp. Anchiale austrotesselata   [48]
Aves Gymnorhina tibicen Graeffea crouanii   Paine [26] from Hinckley (unpublished)
  Acridotheres tristis Graeffea crouanii   [47]
Mammalia Rattus exulans Graeffea crouanii
All instars and eggs
  [144]
  Rattus rattus Graeffea crouanii
all instars and eggs
  [143]
Fungus
Deuteromycetes
Hyohomycetaceae
Beauveria bassiana Unknown Used in China to control infesting phasmids [115]
  1. This table shows host-specific parasites and specific examples of wild predators. Laboratory studies of generalist predators (e.g. [145]) and non-economically important generalist insectivores (e.g. Hamilton and Pollack 1961) are not included
\