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Table 3 Summary of main biotic and abiotic constraints on rice production

From: Farmers’ rice knowledge and adoption of new cultivars in the Tillabéry region of western Niger

Constraint name Effect on rice Causes Time of infection Control measures Local names (LN) Translation of LN
Birds Suction of spikelets Birds, drought Milk stage, maturity Guardians (two rice bags/guardian/season Sassa, Tsounsayé Birds
Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) (Xanthomonas oryzae spp.) Drying and rotting of leaves, milky drops Soil worms, unknown Tillering, booting Apply ash, pesticides, elimination of diseased plants Bouharora, Wiharora, Goura Kill in the water
Borers (Chilo zacconius B.) Drying of panicles, rotting of the ‘heart’ Plant worms, butterflies Booting, milk stage Generally none, sometimes pesticides Djindegoro, Bon kwaraye, kofo, Goro-goro, Kolo-wiyo Neck sting, white head, ‘heart killer’
Drought Drying and death of seedling God Seeding, tillering Late sowing Kogay Drought, lack of water
Flood Rotting of plants and death God Seeding, tillering Early sowing Hari ngayan ‘Eaten’ by water
Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L.) Destruction of fields, feeding of plants Overprotected by the government From tillering to harvest Guardians (60 USD/guardian/sector Ba nga Hippopotamus
Pests Injuries to leaves and spikelets God, good rainy season Booting, milk stage Generally none, sometimes pesticides A nga riya, doyzo, fara Insects, grasshopper
Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) Yellowing of leaves, height reduction, blackish and empty panicles Worms, high humidity, ‘white fertilizer’ (urea), unknown Tillering after application of urea Apply ash from millet glume and glumelles, drying fields, pesticides, elimination of diseased plants, sometimes none, inefficient Ola, Olalo, Tiguiro, Larabo, Dori Sayo, Tchoukki, Bellayze tchira The yellow one, the dwarf, the Arabic man, the Touareg man, the one with light complexion
Salinity Discoloration and death of leaves, yield reduction, low tillering Salt in the soil Anytime Apply millet glume and glumelle, organic manure Sosso Bicarbonate
Spiders (species unknown) Trap seedling, reduce vigor God Seedling Destruction of cobwebs, none Dadara Spider
Unknown Whitening of seedlings’ leaves Unknown Seedling Apply ash, usually none Kofa Unknown
Weedy rice (species unknown) Invades fields, seed degeneration Transformation of rice over time to wild rice Anytime, but visible at heading Elimination of invasive plants (usually young farmers could not differentiate from rice) Sombay Wild rice, O. barthii
Whitefly (Aleurocybotus indicus D. and S.) Honeydew on leaves and sheath Flies, high density transplanting Booting Apply ash, drying fields, sometimes none Katou, You Honey
  1. As described by farmers in the region of Tillabéry.