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Table 1 Biophysical and socio-political conditions of the three case study countries

From: Brazil, Ethiopia, and New Zealand lead the way on climate-smart agriculture

  Brazil Ethiopia New Zealand
Biophysical conditions ■ Land area: 8.5 M km2 ■ Land area: 1.1 M km2 ■ Land area: 0.3 M km2
■ Large biodiversity reserves ■ Highly diverse agri-ecosystems ■ Geographically isolated island nation with highly diverse climate zones
■ 13.5% of the world’s potential arable land ■ Land degradation affects >40 M ha
■ Significant non-forested land with agricultural potential ■ Annual soil erosion loss of ~ 1.9 B tons ■ Of total land area, 39% is in pasture, 1.6% in horticulture and cropping, and 6.6% in planted production forest; 33% is legally conserved
■ 80% of cultivated land yields <1 ton/ha
Socioeconomic conditions ■ Population: ~203 M people ■ Population: ~88 M people ■ Population: ~4.5 M people
■ GDP: 2.2 T USD ■ GDP: ~45 B USD ■ GDP: ~180 B USD
■ Major agri-commodity exporter ■ Heavy economic dependence on agricultural exports ■ Heavy economic dependence on agricultural exports
■ Population living on < $2 USD/day: ~7% ■ Population living on < $2 USD/day: ~70% ■ Population living on < $2 USD/day: N/A
Climate change ■ 3.2% of total global GHG emissions (2010); 70% of national GHG emissions related to agriculture and deforestation ■ >40% of national GHG emissions related to livestock ■ 47% of national GHG emissions related to agriculture; agricultural emissions increased by 15% during 1990–2012 although emissions intensity declined
■ High vulnerability of rainfed agriculture to climate change
■ 23% of global forest carbon stored in Amazon, which is threatened by climate change   ■ Increasingly variable weather threatens agriculture sector
  1. These three countries differ dramatically in the size of their land bases, populations, economies, and farming systems; yet for all three, agriculture is a critical component of international trade, climate change mitigation potential, and national culture [5]-[7],[15]-[19],[31],[37],[38].
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