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Table 1 Description of variables and expected signs used in the conditional and ordered logit models

From: Household adoption of soil-improving practices and food insecurity in Ghana

Variables Expected sign Values Details
Adoption Food security
Dependent variables
 Application of soil-improving practices    No adoption = 0 Mulching, cover crops, crop rotation, no-till, and minimum till
Adoption = 1
 Food insecurity groups    Chronic = 1  
Seasonal = 2
Vulnerable = 3
Food secure = 4
Independent variables
 Application of soil-improving practices   + No adoption = 0  
Adoption = 1
 Food insecure/secure + ? Food insecure = 0  
Food secure = 1
 Income + + Continuous 100 cedi currency/year
 Chemical fertilizer application ? + No application = 0 12-month time frame
Apply = 1
 Commercial seed application ? + No application = 0 12-month time frame
Apply = 1
 Insecticide application ? ? No application = 0 12-month time frame
Apply = 1
 Herbicide application ? ? No application = 1 12-month time frame
Apply = 1
 Household head age + ?   Years
 Household head education level + + No or pre-school = 0  
junior and above school = 1
 Household size ? ?   Number
 Medium-quality soil ? + Poor = 0  
Medium = 1
 Seasonal lease ? ? No seasonal lease = 0 12-month time frame
Seasonal lease = 1
 Long term proprietorship—dropped to avoid collinearity issues + ? No long lease = 0 12-month time frame
Long lease = 1
 Sharecropping ? ? No sharecropping = 0 12-month time frame
Share cropping = 1
 Information and training (access) from extension services + + No access = 0  
Access = 1