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Table 3 Climate-ready crops improved using genetic engineering

From: Modern plant biotechnology as a strategy in addressing climate change and attaining food security

Crop Gene and genetic engineering methods used Target trait Trait improvement References
Rice Transgenic rice expressing Capsicum annum methionine sulfoxide reductase B2 (CaMsrB2) gene Drought resistance Drought tolerance at reproductive stage [195]
Rice RNAi silencing of RACK1 gene expression Drought resistance Higher growth even at water stress [200]
ASD India Rice Transgenic of gene DNA helicase-47 (PDH47) from Pisum sativum Drought resistance Regulate several stress response genes [201]
Arabidopsis thaliana Abscisic acid‐responsive transcription Drought resistance Deeper root system [203]
Rice CRISPR editing on MADS-box transcription factors for gene MADS78 and MADS79 Seed germination Endosperm cellularization and early seed development [231]
Rice Knockdown of gna1a, dep1, and gs3 gene Abiotic stress resistance—Climate-ready crop High yield, large grain size, grain number, improved grain weight [232]
Rice CRISPR edition of 3ʹ end of OsLOGL5 coding sequence Drought resistance Increase in grain yield [232]
Rice Cytokinin homeostasis Stress resistance Increase in grain yield [222]
Rice CRISPR of gs3 and dep1 genes Salinity tolerance   [232]
Rice Silencing the ERF transcription factor gene OsERF922 y CRISPR editing Disease resistance Resistant to rice blast in both seedling and tillering stages [229]
Maize Transgenic maize preserving RNA stability and translation of Cold shock protein B Drought resistance Maintain the cellular functions under water stress conditions [238]
Maize Transgenic maize with homologous ZmNF-YB2 Drought resistance 50% increase in grain yield [241]
Maize CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit ARGOS8 Drought resistance Increase in plant yield [243]
Maize ZFN technique to knock out of TMS5, the thermo-sensitive male sterile 5 gene Heat resistance Thermos-sensitive male-sterile maize crops [244]
Maize RNAi technology in putative V-ATPaseA coding region Pest resistance Resistant to Western corn rootworm [249]
Soybean Overexpression of Arabidopsis gene Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CR) Drought resistance Tolerate high-temperature condition [254]
Soybean Transformed with AtDREB1A gene under rd29A Drought resistance Increase in plant photosynthetic rate, plant chlorophyll content with a higher stomatal conductance [256]
Soybean Virus-induced gene silencing of WRKY transcription factors Stress resistance Resistant to biotic and abiotic stress [257]
Soybean Transgenic with csr1-2 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana herbicide- resistance Resistant to imidazolinone chemical class [261]
Soybean Transgenic with cry1Ab gene from Bt Pest resistance Resistant to larval feeding and growth of Anticarsia gemmatalis [261]
Wheat Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) gene Water stress Tolerance of water stress conditions [268]
Wheat Transgenic with manipulation in transgene Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) Pest resistance Resistance to Aphid damage [274]
Wheat TALEN, and CRISPR-mediated genome editing to the target gene TaMLO Pest resistance Resistance to Powdery mildew disease [274]
Wheat CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in EDR1gene Pest resistance Resistance to Powdery mildew disease [275]
Wheat CRISPR-mediated editing of gene TaGASR7 length and weight Drought resistance Improved grain length and weight [277]
Barley overexpression of HvSNAC1 stress responsible transcription factor Drought resistance Tolerate drought without a reduction in crop yield [283]
Barley CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of MORC1gene Pest resistance Resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. Hordei and Fusarium graminearum damage [287]
Potato Transgenic with tuber-specific gene AmA1 Enhance nutritional value Increase in protein content [298]
Potato bch gene silencing using RNAi approach Enhance nutritional value Increase in beta-carotene and lutein content [300]
Potato Transgenic with cry1Ac9 and cry9Aa2 genes from Bt Pest resistance Resistant to larval feeding and growth of Anticarsia gemmatalis [303]
Tomato Antisense RNA technology Increase in Shelf life The slowdown in ripening and prevention from softening [305]
Tomato Transgenic and overexpression of banana MYB transcription factor MaMYB3 Increase in Shelf life Inhibition of starch degradation and delay in fruit ripening [307]
Tomato Transgenic and overexpression of apple vacuolar H+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (MdVHP1) Abiotic stress resistance Resistant to salinity and drought [307]
Tomato Deletion of QTLs, Pto gene Pest resistance Resistant to Pseudomonas syringae races and Cladosopum fulvum strains [316]
Cassava Knockdown of eiF4E genes, ncbp1 and ncbp2, using CRISPR/Cas9 technique Pest resistance Resistance to Potyviridae viruses damage [317]
Banana Overexpression of MaPIP1;1 gene Drought resistance Higher ABA content [327]
Banana Knockdown of gibberellins biosynthesis genes Submergence tolerance Well-developed root system [329]