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Table 1 Impact of climate change in food security and adaptation plan

From: Modern plant biotechnology as a strategy in addressing climate change and attaining food security

Region/country Impact on the agriculture sector Adaptation strategies for food security References
Albania Increased temperatures and the threat of waterlogging of fields due to intense rainfall and or flooding may also result in an increased presence of pests and diseases According to Albania National Adaptation Plan 2021, Agricultural resilience against droughts is enhanced [47]
Argentina Climate change-related threats are estimated to potentially impact between 4.5–7% of Argentina’s GDP Enacted National Adaptation Plan for climate change 2021 [48]
Armenia By the 2070s, potato crop yields will decrease by 21% due to climate change Use disease- and pest-resistant crop species; research and use drought- and heat-resistant species and hybrids, especially local species [49]
Bangladesh The salinity threshold by the 2050s as a result of sea-level rise could result in a 15.6% reduction in rice output Nationally determined contribution (updated) 2020
National Agricultural Technology Program-Phase II Project (NATP-2), support to seaweed cultivation
Brazil Food insecure population 66 million and cotton crops are expected to be moderately impacted by climatic changes, but maize and wheat yields will decline significantly Enacted National Adaptation Plan for climate change 2016. genetic improvement to develop drought-resistant varieties, Biofuels [51]
Chile Climate change models predict that the average daily maximum temperatures in Chile will increase by around 2 °C by the 2050s and fruit loss increase by 50% National Adaptation Plan enacted 2017 [52]
Ethiopia Estimates suggest climate change may reduce Ethiopia’s GDP up to 10% by 2045, largely through drought-induced impacts on agricultural productivity Ethiopia’s climate-resilient green economy national adaptation plan-2019 [53]
India Wheat and maize yield in central India is expected to decline significantly even at lower carbon emission pathways National Adaptation Plan for climate change in the process includes an adaptation of new technology to produce resilient crop varieties [54]
Nigeria Studies show that increased levels of CO2 will lead to nutrient declines in rice of up to 17%, with increased rainfall variability and higher temperatures likely to also further reduce rice yields Enacted National Adaptation Plan for climate change in 2021 [55]
Sri Lanka By the 2060s, crop yields are projected to decline in the range of 12–19% and 27–41% in Maha and Yala season, respectively. The poverty rate could increase in the range of 12–26% The National Adaptation Plan for climate change has been enacted in 2016 [56]
Thailand Their study projects rain-fed rice yields to reduce 10% by 2080 under the RCP 8.5 emissions pathway and crop water productivity reducing 29% by 2080 under the same emissions pathway Thailand’s third national communication; Climate change adaptation plan [57]