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Table 7 Comparison of per capita expenditure on food with monthly minimum income

From: Implications of food and nutrition security on household food expenditure: the case of Malaysia

Description   2003 2013 2019 2021
Optimized food cost per day: (RM/day) (a) 10.49 13.15 15.61 15.97
Optimized food cost per month: (RM/month) (b = a*30) 314.70 394.50 468.43 479.04
Estimated income per month: (RM/month) (c) 610.00 850.00 1100.00 1200.00
Ratio of food expenditure to income: (%) (d = b/c) 52% 46% 43% 40%
  1. Source: This study
  2. 2003 PLI is estimated from Chapter 3 in the Mid-Review of 8th Malaysia Plan [42]. The minimum wages in 2013, 2019, and 2021 are derived from the Minimum Wage Order 2012 [43], 2018 [44], and 2020 [45], effective 1st Jan, 2013 and 2019, and 1st Feb, 2020, respectively
  3. The optimized food cost in 2019 and 2021 is estimated by assuming that the optimal servings in both years are equivalent to the optimized servings in 2013 and food cost inflation rates are equivalent to 18.74% and 21.43%, which are the CPI inflation rates from 2013 to 2019 and 2013 to 2021, respectively