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Table 1 Summary of interview questions and justification for their inclusion from the existing literature

From: Risk perception associated with an emerging agri-food risk in Europe: plant viruses in agriculture

  Description/rationale References
Interview questions
NB. All answers were “open ended”, and the interviewer asked study participants to explain their answers if relevant in the context of the interview   
Risk perceptions
- What does the term “risk” mean to you? (Question number 1)
- Are you aware of the difference between an emerging and existing risk? (Question number 2)
- Are you aware of any risks in agriculture? Can you tell me more about these? (Question number 3)
- Are you aware of any emerging risks in agriculture?
Can you tell me more about these? (Question number 4)
- When you think about risks in agriculture, can you think of some words to describe these? (Question number 5)
- Do you think of anything else when you think about emerging risks in agriculture? (Question number 6)
Risk perception
People’s attitudes toward different agri-food risks are determined by their risk perceptions. Risk perception influences the extent to which a risk is perceived to be acceptable or otherwise
Perceptual factors specifically associated with emerging agri-food risks
It is known that some risk perception l factors are more likely to be associated with emerging risks, or those risks perceived to be novel. Presenting a naturally occurring risk in an emerging or ‘crisis’ context may increase peoples fear, concern and risk perceptions
People may perceive emerging agri-food risks to have characteristics in common with other potential hazards the agri-food sector, to which they make cognitive “reference” and which they judge to be risky in the same way
- Do you think plant viruses result in risks or provide benefits to agriculture? Or do you think plant viruses may have both positive and negative impacts? (Question number 9)
- Can you describe any risks (if the interviewee identifies the risk question)? (Question number 10)
- Can you describe any benefits (if the interviewee identifies the benefits)? (Question number 11)
- Do you think there are any negative or positive impacts caused by viruses on the quality of foods produced on farms? (Question number 13)
- Do you think there are any negative or positive impacts caused by viruses on the quantity of food produced on farms? (Question number 14)
It has been established that there is an inverse relationship between perceived risks and perceived benefits, across a range of different potential hazards, including within the agri-food domain [55,56,57]
-What is the first thing that crosses your mind when you hear the term plant viruses? (Question number 8) Affective responses may also be evoked by emerging or novel risks, such as fear, and is likely to be evoked on first presentation of information about an emerging risk [53, 58]
Do you think there are any risks to…
A. Plant health?
B. Human health?
C. Environmental health?
D. The economy linked to farming and agriculture?
(Question number 12)
Risk (and benefit) perceptions are linked to concerns which extend beyond impacts to human health but may include impacts on the economy or the environment [59,60,61,62]
Knowledge about (the risks of) plant viruses)
- Have you heard about viruses in crop plants before? If yes, can you tell me more about what you know about these? (Question number 7) Lack of knowledge about an emerging risk may influence risk perceptions associated with that risk. It is important to understand what people know and understand in order to develop effective risk communication information [39, 63, 64]
Perceived responsibility for control
- Do you think farmers should control emerging risks associated with viruses in agriculture? Please explain your answer. (Question number 15)
- Do you think the government should control emerging risks associated with viruses in agriculture? Please explain your answer. (Question number 16)
Risk communication and trust
- Would you like more information about the risks and benefits of plant viruses? (Question number 17)
 How would you like to get this information? (If participants answered yes to question 17)
 -From whom would you like this information? ( If participants answered yes to question 17)
An effective risk communication development strategy should consider whom the public trust and the preferred media for delivering information [68, 69]
Who is likely to be the most affected by plant viruses
- Do you think farmers are worried about plant viruses? Why? (Question number 18)
- Do you think your national government is worried about plant viruses? Why? (Question number 19)
- Do you think people involved in the food chain (for example, those working in the retail sector) (Question number 20)
Emerging risks may differentially affect different actors in the supply chain. It is of interest to find out whom people believe are adversely affected, as this may influence their perceptions of the acceptability of a risk (or otherwise) [39, 70]
Policy interventions
- Should the government act to reduce negative impacts of plant viruses in the food supply chain? (Question number 21) Evidence is required by policymakers with regard to challenges connected to emerging food safety hazards to ameliorate risk management, and deliver the tools for risk analysis, policy development and implementation. This should take account of citizen stakeholder preferences for risk policies in the policy development process. This includes whether or not the government should intervene, as well as how this should evolve into policy [24, 25, 71]