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Table 3 Ordered probit estimates of determinants of food security of farm households in Ghana

From: Does food security exist among farm households? Evidence from Ghana

Variables Estimates Marginal effects
Coeff Std error Y = 0 SE Y = 1 SE Y = 2 SE
Gender − 0.162* 0.090 0.018* 0.010 0.025* 0.014 − 0.044* 0.024
Age − 0.203 0.056 0.023 0.015 0.032 0.021 − 0.055 0.037
Household size 0.001 0.007 0.000 0.0008 0.0002 0.001 0.003 0.001
Farming Experience 0.004* 0.002 − 0.004* 0.002 − 0.006* 0.0003 0.001* 0.0006
Growing improved variety 0.158*** 0.055 − 0.018*** 0.006 − 0.025*** 0.008 0.043*** 0.015
Household total crop income 2.77e− 06 4.96e− 06 − 3.21e−07 5.74e− 07 − 4.38e−07 7.85e− 07 7.59e−07 1.36e−06
Marital status − 0.042 0.122 0.004 0.013 0.006 0.019 − 0.010 0.032
Residence status 0.087 0.064 − 0.010 0.007 − 0.013 0.010 0.024 0.017
Association membership 0.017 0.056 − 0.002 0.006 − 0.003 0.009 0.005 0.015
Extension access 0.013 0.068 − 0.005 0.007 − 0.002 0.010 0.004 0.018
Credit access − 0.123** 0.064 0.014** 0.007 0.02** 0.010 − 0.034** 0.017
Head of household − 0.050 0.089 0.006 0.010 0.008 0.014 − 0.014 0.026
up to primary 6 0.619*** 0.075 − 0.061*** 0.007 − 0.098*** 0.011 0.159*** 0.018
up to junior high school level 4.771 619.785 − 0.963*** 0.008 − 0.212*** 0.050 0.308*** 0.053
Up to senior high school level 0.143** 0.070 − 0.019** 0.009 − 0.023** 0.011 0.042** 0.020
Tertiary excluding university 0.067 0.180 − 0.09 0.024 − 0.011 0.030 0.020 0.054
University 0.343 0.341 − 0.024 0.032 − 0.056 0.054 0.097 0.086
Ashanti Region 0.036 0.167 − 0.004 0.019 − 0.005 0.026 0.010 0.045
Brong Ahafo Region − 0.099 0.097 0.006 0.006 0.009 0.009 − 0.016 0.015
Central Region − 1.151*** 0.119 0.138*** 0.017 0.093*** 0.009 − 0.231*** 0.023
Eastern Region 0.093 0.106 − 0.005 0.006 − 0.008 0.010 0.014 0.016
Greater Accra Region − 1.529*** 0.188 0.212*** 0.036 0.105*** 0.009 − 0.317*** 0.040
Northern Region − 2.612*** 0.115 0.453*** 0.201 0.104*** 0.009 − 0.557*** 0.020
Upper East Region − 2.420*** 0.157 0.410*** 0.030 0.106*** 0.009 − 0.516*** 0.028
Upper West Region − 2.511*** 0.156 0.430*** 0.030 0.105*** 0.009 − 0.53*** 0.029
Volta Region − 1.204*** 0.112 0.148*** 0.016 0.095*** 0.008 − 0.243*** 0.021
μ1 0.757 0.187       
μ2 1.683 0.184       
N 2603        
Log likelihood − 1967.530        
Wald X2 2145.07***       
  1. ***, **,*, represent significance at 1%, 5% and 10%, respectively; μ1 and μ2 are threshold parameters in ordered probit model