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Table 1 Country, number (NP) and area (ha) of forest patches, proximity to the patches (m), type of pollinators, matrix around forest patches, and key results of studies that have investigated the distance-dependent effects of forest patches on bees

From: Amount, distance-dependent and structural effects of forest patches on bees in agricultural landscapes

References Country NP Area Proximity Pollinator Matrix Key results
[53] USA 8 3–215 16–324 Honeybee; bumblebee Farm Pollination did not have a significant relationship with distance from the forest
[62] USA 1000 Native and honeybee Watermelon Pollen deposition by native bees was significantly lower at far farms (those surrounded by  < 1% natural habitat)
[58] Indonesia 0–900 Native bees Coffee By increasing distance from the forest edge, social bee abundance decreased. In contrast, social bees’ densities increased
[93] Costa Rica 3 46–111 50–1600 Native and honeybee Coffee Visitation rate, pollen deposition, and bee richness were higher near (100 m) forest fragments
[31] Brazil 1000 Native bees Coffee An increase (14.6%) was observed in farms near the forest
[95] Costa Rica 2 60–100 50–1600 Native and honeybee Coffee Bee richness, visiting rate, and pollen deposition decreased significantly with increasing distance from forest patches
[95] New Zealand 0–111 Native and honeybee Kiwifruit Visitation of all non-honeybee visitors per flower was significantly higher for orchards near native vegetation
[95] USA 100 Native bees Almond Despite the proximity of orchards to natural habitats, there was no substantial visitation by native species
[121] Ecuador 100–500 Cavity-nesting bees Rice and coffee Forest distance correlated positively with bee species richness
[25] Argentina 0–1000 Native and honeybee Grapefruit By increasing the distance from the forest, visiting frequency decreased. At distances greater than 500 m from forest fragments, honeybees decreased significantly
[59] Indonesia 0–1415 Megachilidae Arable land By increasing the distance from the forest, the total number of bees decreased
[56] USA 2000 Ground-nesting bees Sunflower More abundant and diverse communities of bees were found nesting at farms with patches of natural habitat nearby than farms that were far away from natural habitat (having  < 25% of forest cover in a radius of 2 km)
[126] USA 500–1500 Osmia lignaria Farm By increasing distance from forest offspring reduction increased
[19] Costa Rica 1 230 0–1500 Native and honeybee Farm and pasture Near the forest, honeybees accounted for 5% of the total samples, while stingless bees accounted for 50%. As the distance from the forest increased, meliponines decreased to 20% and honeybees increased to 45%
[100] Kenya 0–5000 Honeybees At distances of less than 1 km from the forest, the amount of honey produced was doubled that of the hives located at a distance of 3 km
[63] India 0.3–200 10–500 Native and honeybee Coffee Distance from forest patches did not affect pollinators
[16] Mexico 1 15 1–400 Euglossine Coffee By increasing the distance from the forest, euglossine abundance decreased
[12] India 1400 Social bee Coffee By increasing the distance from the forest, the total visitor abundance decreased in rain-fed agroforests
[77] Argentina 5–1000 Honeybee Soybean By increasing the distance from the forest, total visitation rates decreased
[2] Brazil 2 900–1200 100–1000 Euglossine Pasture By increasing distance from forest, abundance, richness, and diversity of orchid bees decreased
[14] Spain 1 40 500–1800 Honeybee; native bees Farm Honeybee abundance can increase with greater distance from the forest
[109] Thailand 10 3.6–650 20,000 Stingless bees Orchard Pollination success in near farms (< 1 km) was enhanced substantially by proximity to the forest than far farms (> 7 km)
[52] USA 0–1000 Native and honeybee Orchard By increasing the distance from forest patches, the number of bee visits to apple flowers decreased
[30] Brazil 1 2176 250–500 Cavity-nesting bees Farm At the forest edge, parasitism and mortality were more observed
[49] Brazil 1500 Apoidea Coffee Reducing yield gaps and higher biodiversity were found in farms near the forest
[105] Brazil 1 0.6 600–4000 Xylocopa Passion fruit By increasing the distance from the forest, total visitation rates of Xylocopa decreased
[108] Thailand 10 360–65,000 50–30,000 Stingless bee Orchard At sites near (< 1 km) the forest, the average number of visitor interactions was higher
[22] Indonesia 200–1000 Native bees Cucumber In farms near (< 200) to the forest, pollinators were significantly lower compared to farms far (> 1000) from the forest
Distance from the forest did not affect the productivity of cucumbers
[71] Brazil 500–1500 Stingless bee Mixed By increasing distance from forest, Stingless bee richness decreased regardless of body size. In contrast, stingless bee body size increased
[86] Brazil 14 1–39 500 Native bees Pasture By increasing the distance from the forest, β-diversity increased
[107] Estonia 2000 Bumblebee Farm The species richness and abundance were higher in the margins next to the forest compared to the margins next to open habitats
[32] Nepal 100–2100 Honeybee; solitary bees Mustard By increasing the distance from the forest, diversity measures decreased
[46] Brazil 400 Meliponini Coffee By increasing distance from forest, bee richness and abundance decreased. Bee abundance decreased only when the coffee cover dominated the landscapes matrix
[50] Argentina 1–15 0–200 Native and honeybees Soybean By increasing distance from forest, pollen deposition and total visitation rates of native bees decreased
[99] Mexico 1000 Native bees Soybean The presence of preserved patches contributes to the richness and the abundance of bees, due to the maintenance of wildflowers and ruderal plants in patches next to the crop fields, providing a continuous source of pollen
[125] Thailand 1500–15,000 Stingless bees Orchard By increasing the distance from the forest, pollinator specialization decreased