Skip to main content

Table 5 Estimates of double-hurdle model for determinants of market participation.

From: Determinants of market participation among smallholder farmers in Southwest Ethiopia: double-hurdle model approach

Description of variables First-stage (Tier 1) Second-stage (Tier 2)
Coef Std. err. Marginal effect Coef. Std. err. P > z
Sex of the household head − 0.204 0.170 − 0.0560 0.198* 0.119 0.095
Education level − 0.116*** 0.028 − 0.0274 0.013 0.019 0.502
Farming experience − 0.016** 0.007 − 0.0042 − 0.001 0.005 0.815
Cooperative Membership 0.277* 0.153 0.0600 − 0.117 0.106 0.272
Family size − 0.008 0.028 − 0.0070 − 0.036* 0.021 0.092
Land allocated for maize 0.094 0.132 0.0038 0.789*** 0.085 0.000
Number of oxen owned 0.149** 0.074 0.0404 0.181*** 0.052 0.001
Distance to the nearest market − 0.043** 0.022 − 0.0136 − 0.040** 0.016 0.015
Credit amount received (log) 0.033* 0.019 0.0116 0.019 0.013 0.154
Off/non-farm income (log) − 0.069*** 0.020 − 0.0234 − 0.021 0.015 0.168
Access to training 0.220 0.141 0.0614 − 0.068 0.099 0.490
Livestock ownership (TLU) 0.002 0.041 − 0.0067 − 0.183*** 0.030 0.000
Perception on lagged price 0.068*** 0.019 0.0240 0.058*** 0.015 0.000
Maize quantity produced (log) 0.617*** 0.093 0.1595    
Distance to nearest road     − 0.021 0.027 0.428
_cons − 3.703*** 0.697   5.537*** 0.303 0.000
Sigma     0.896*** 0.032 0.000
Wald/LR chi-square 127.630    178.750   
Number of observations 546      
Wald Chi2(14) =  97.520      
Prob > Chi2 0.000      
Log likelihood (double-hurdle) − 769.546      
  1. “*”, “**” and “***” represent statistical significance of factors at 10, 5 and 1% levels, respectively