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Table 4 Resource ownership and institutional characteristics of sample households.

From: Determinants of market participation among smallholder farmers in Southwest Ethiopia: double-hurdle model approach

Variable description Participant (n = 381)
Mean (std. dev.)
Non-participant (n = 165)
Mean (std. dev.)
Total (n = 546)
Mean (std. dev.)
t-value/λ2 value
Land allotted for maize (hectare) 0.970 (0.626) 0.849 (0.571) 0.933 (0.612) 2.117**
Quantity of maize produced (kilogram) 1512.800 (1408.420) 673.333 (486.320) 1259.115 (1266.152) 7.463***
Quantity of maize sold (kilogram) 963.614 (1162.838) 0.000 (0.000) 672.412 (1067.230) 10.639***
Number of oxen owned (count) 2.388 (1.338) 2.103 (1.328) 2.302 (1.340) 2.294**
Extension contact (frequency) 7.567 (9.208) 11.782 (11.479) 8.841 (10.125) 4.547***
Amount of credit (Ethiopian Birr) 4466.182 (17,222.540) 2252.150 (4206.060) 2921.230 (10,130.520) 2.355**
Off/non-farm income (Ethiopian Birr) 1292.650 (3139.996) 1201.697 (2318.710) 1265.165 (2914.480) 0.335
Distance nearest road (walking minutes) 31.430 (23.268) 36.218 (30.836) 32.877 (25.855) 1.993
Livestock holding (TLU) 5.141(2.452) 4.952 (2.507) 5.084 (2.468) 0.823
Distance to nearest market (walking minutes) 63.472 (36.651) 74.495 (48.230) 66.803 (40.771) 2.921**
Lagged market price perception: good 236 (76.380) 73 (23.620) 309 (56.590) 14.684 ***
Otherwise 145 (61.180) 92 (38.820) 237 (43.410)  
Cooperative membership: members 180 (68.700) 82 (31.300) 262 (47.990) 0.2775
Non-members 201 (70.770) 83 (29.230) 284 (52.010)  
Participation in training: trained 249 (67.120) 122 (32.880) 371 (67.950) 3.8965**
Non-trained 132 (75.430) 43 (24.570) 175 (32.050)  
  1. “*”, “**” and “***” represent statistical significance of factors at 10, 5 and 1% levels, respectively