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Table 3 Demographic characteristics of sample households.

From: Determinants of market participation among smallholder farmers in Southwest Ethiopia: double-hurdle model approach

Variable description Participant (n = 381)
Mean (std. dev.)
Non-participant (n = 165)
Mean (std. dev.)
Total (n = 546)
Mean (std. dev.)
t-value/λ2 value
Age of household head 41.730 (10.897) 43.455 (11.925) 42.251 (11.234) 1.650
Family size 5.719 (2.284) 5.812 (2.866) 5.747 (2.472) 0.403
Education level of HH 3.302 (2.722) 4.212 (2.355) 3.577 (2.648) 3.732***
Farming Experience 19.472 (10.136) 21.660 (9.728) 20.134 (10.056) 2.345**
Sex of HH: male 302 (68.330) 140 (31.670) 442 (80.950) 2.328*
Female 79 (75.960) 25 (24.040) 104 (19.050)  
  1. “*”, “**” and “***” represent statistical significance of factors at 10, 5 and 1% levels, respectively