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Table 2 Summary of variable description and expected sign.

From: Determinants of market participation among smallholder farmers in Southwest Ethiopia: double-hurdle model approach

Variables Type Descriptions and measures Expected sign (hypothesis) Theoretical suggestions and empirical literatures to support hypothesis
Dependent variable
 Market participation decision Dummy It is a binary dependent variable that represents the probability of market participation of the producers in the maize market. The variable takes the value of 1 for the household who participate in the market, where as it takes the value of 0 for the household who does not participate in the maize market   
 Quantity of maize sold (Log) Continuous A continuous variable that indicating the amount of maize actually sold and measured in kilogram   
Independent variables
 Farming experience Continuous A continuous variable measured in years of farming  +  This is supported by empirical study conducted by [38, 39]
 Sex of household head Dummy 1 if the household head is male and 0 otherwise  ±  Empirical studies conducted by [5, 22, 25, 28, 40, 41] found indeterminate results
 Education level of HH Continuous Education level of household heads in number of years completed  ±  Empirical studies conducted by [22, 42,43,44] found indeterminate results
 Family size Continuous Total number family size in the household  +  A study conducted by [45,46,47,48] found positive result
 Number of oxen owned Continuous Total number of oxen owned by the household head interms of  number  ±  This is supported by empirical study by [49, 49,50,51] found indeterminate results
 Land allotted for maize Continuous Total land size allotted for maize crop measured in hectare  +  Empirical studies conducted by [28, 51, 52] positive result
 Participation in training Continuous It takes 1, if the household head participated training and 0 otherwise during survey period  +  Findings of [53] found positive effect
 Livestock holding Continuous Total livestock holding in terms of Tropical Livestock Unit (TLU), excluding oxen  ±  This is supported by findings of [54, 55] found indeterminate results
 Amount of credit Continuous Amount of credit received by household in terms of Ethiopian Birr during survey period  +  This is supported by empirical study conducted by [14, 56, 57]
 Quantity of maize produced Continuous Total quantity of maize produced by household in kilogram  +  It is supported by empirical study conducted by [21, 58] found positive effect
 Cooperative membership Dummy 1 if household is member and 0 otherwise  ±  Empirical studies conducted by [59, 60] found indeterminate results
 Distance to nearest market Continuous Distance to nearest market in walking minutes Empirical findings of [14] found negative effect
 Perception about lagged market price Dummy 1 if the household head has high perception about market price and 0 otherwise  +  A study conducted by [44] found positive result
 Non/off-farm income Continuous Amount of income obtained from non/off-farm activities (in Ethiopian Birr) annually  ±  Empirical studies conducted by [39, 42, 61, 62] found indeterminate results
 Distance to nearest road Continuous Distance to nearest all round road in terms of walking minutes Empirical studies conducted by [19, 63] found negative effect