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Table 3 Summary of benefits of buffer capacity

From: Can monocultures be resilient? Assessment of buffer capacity in two agroindustrial cropping systems in Africa and South America

Buffer capacity indicator Contribution to social–ecological resilience
Diversity of crops and breeds • Improve soil fertility
• Yield improvement [58]
• Enhances agroecosystem productivity [12, 41]
• Enhances ecological resilience
• Improves food security [59]
Percentage of arable land under vegetation • Vegetation provides habitat for biodiversity and pollinators [60]
• Helps to recharge water system
• Contributes to yield improvement
• Improves livelihood resilience [37]
Landscape heterogeneity • Improves crop yield [58]
• Improves soil health
• improves provision of agroecosystem services [46]
Number of crops rotated • Crop rotation supports soil health [44]
• Improves productivity
• Enhances soil carbon [61]
Livelihood Capitals (human, social, financial, natural, and physical capitals) • Aggregation ensures economies of scale
• Advocacy by the associations [47]
• Multiple credit sources, shareholding, and savings cushions against price fluctuations, supports procurement of inputs and farm maintenance in event of shocks [62]
• Human skills and knowledge important for efficient production
• Proximity to roads, railway and airports important for procurement of inputs and sell of outputs
• Water important for irrigation
• Land for expansion of the farms and maintaining biodiversity
  1. Source: Compiled by the Authors