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Table 3 Perceptions about change among different stakeholders

From: Qualitative evidence for improved caring, feeding and food production practices after nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions in rural Vietnam

Stakeholder group District authorities Commune authorities Village health workers Nursery school teachers Micro-entrepreneurs Parents/ farmers
Production–consumption pathway Multi-stakeholder interventions led to farmers’ behaviour changes;
Role models and influential community members enhanced confidence;
Partial shift from cash crops to non-cash nutritious crops;
Increased diversity of nutritious crop production;
At least 15% of farmers have surplus nutritious food to sell to communities and micro-entrepreneurs;
Vulnerable households still focus on labour and cash crops for income.
Partial shift from cash crops to non-cash nutritious crops;
Increased diversity of nutritious crop production;
Nutritious food integrated in household diets;
Shift from buying food with wages to producing own food and selling surplus;
Vulnerable households still focus on labour and cash crops for income.
Increased food diversity (production and diet) and NSA practices;
More nutritious daily food intake for children and pregnant women;
Farmers will continue growing nutritious crops after project ends.
  Farmers produce more nutritious food for daily intake;
Farmers sell surplus food to micro-entrepreneurs and communities.
Increased food diversity (production and diet) and NSA practices;
Farmers will continue growing nutritious crops, seeing good results;
More confident and knowledgeable in implementing new NSA models;
Vulnerable households still focus on labour and cash crops for income.
Caring–feeding pathway Intersectoral interventions supported at least half of families to change behaviour in caring and feeding for children and pregnant women: seeking health care, hygiene, breastfeeding, and vaccination;
Household groups an essential channel for health and nutrition education and behaviour change.
At least half of families already changed behaviour in feeding and caring for children and pregnant women;
Peer-to-peer exchanges crucial for knowledge sharing and behaviour change;
Families applied new knowledge on nutrition, nutritious crops and school feeding.
Village health workers gained knowledge on NSA;
Improved caring and feeding behaviour for children and pregnant women;
Household groups meetings enhanced social capital.
Better home cooking practices learnt from the school feeding program;
Parents spend more money on food for children;
Parents working away unable to take good care of children.
Better home cooking practices learnt from micro-entrepreneurs;
Parents pay more attention to nutrition, feeding their children, and school meals. Some bought food from micro-entrepreneurs for children not at school;
Micro-entrepreneurs and parents communicate about school meals and food intake.
More exchange on NSA knowledge and practices among community members and households lead to behaviour change;
Parents increased knowledge on nutrition and health care. They will continue new behaviours after project ends;
More social exchange in community;
Parents working away unable to take good care of children.
HGSF pathway Education sector needs multi-stakeholder collaboration to implement school feeding program;
At least 15% of households sell surplus agricultural products to micro-entrepreneurs for school meals;
Reduced undernutrition among nursery school children;
School meals contributed to increased nursery school attendance;
Children requested same meals at home;
District Education Committee will continue school meals when program support ends.
Selection of committed/active micro-entrepreneurs;
Increased use of home-grown foods in school meals;
Parents and teachers communicate about school meals and nutrition education;
Reduced undernutrition among nursery school children;
School meals contributed to increased nursery school attendance;
Most parents willing to pay for school meals when program support ends but some are unable to pay.
Parents pay more attention to nutritious breakfasts for nursery school and younger children;
Parents bring children to school more regularly and on time;
School feeding contributed to behaviour change in feeding and caring for children and pregnant women;
Most parents willing to pay for school meals when project ends but vulnerable households cannot.
Teachers, parents and micro-entrepreneurs communicate more about nutrition and school meals;
Reduced undernutrition among nursery school children;
School meals contributed to increased attendance at nursery schools;
Children changed hygiene habits and food preferences;
Increased use of home-grown foods in school meals;
Micro-entrepreneurs provide alternative payment plans for families that cannot pay on time.
Local food sources are used for school meals, including micro-entrepreneurs’ own products;
Children like school meals and look healthy;
Positive effects of school meals motivate micro-entrepreneurs to maintain good quality;
Increased trust in the capacity of micro-entrepreneurs;
Most parents willing to pay for school meals after project ends but some are unable to pay;
Micro-entrepreneurs provide alternative payment plans for families that cannot pay on time.
Micro-entrepreneurs and parents communicate about cooking and intake of nutritious foods;
Children love school meals and expect the same food at home;
Reduced undernutrition among nursery school children;
All want to sustain the school feeding program but vulnerable households are unable to pay the full cost.