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Table 1 Variable name and definition of selected characteristics of farmers using improved and non-improved technologies

From: The impact of uptake of selected agricultural technologies on rice farmers’ income distribution in Ghana

Variable Description Users of improved technologies (n = 516) Non-improved users (n = 401) Mean difference (t-value)
Gender 1 if the farmer is women, 0 otherwise 0.22 (0.41) 0.81 (0.39) −0.59 (−22.24)***
Age Age of respondent (years) 43.87 (12.24) 50.95 (13.20) −7.08 (−8.31)***
Adult size Number of adults in the household 8.35 (2.74) 7.62 (2.51) 0.74 (4.25)**
FSize Total rice area (acres) 3.86 (2.72) 3.10 (3.62) 0.77 (3.54)***
Lowner 1 if farmer own land, 0 otherwise 0.66 (0.47) 0.36 (0.48) 0.30 (9.65)***
Extension 1 if a farmer attended relevant extension training programme, 0 otherwise 0.39 (0.49) 0.18 (0.39) 0.21 (7.12)***
Seed Average cost of seed (gh¢) 142.33 (192.38) 0.00 (0.00) 142.33 (16.81)***
Total Livestock Unit (TLU)a TLU (Total Livestock Unit) 1.89 (4.90) 0.99 (3.16) 0.90 (3.32)***
Baby Number of children below 5 years 2.26 (1.49) 3.57 (1.52) −1.31 (−13.12)***
Othercrops Average income from other crops (gh¢) 298.32 (572.85) 224.57 (478.35) 73.75 (2.12)**
TFlabourb Average total family labour hours employed by the farmer in the rice production 539.11 (194.33) 524.53 (169.26) 4.58 (1.21)
  1. Source: Field data, 2016
  2. Estimates in the brackets are standard deviations; **, *** represent significant differences of 5% and 1%, respectively
  3. aLivestock owned by selected farmers include pig, chicken/guinea fowl, cattle, sheep, goat, donkey, duck. The number of livestock was converted to a single unit known as Tropical Livestock Units (TLU). In line with [57] and [58], approximation of TLU was done by multiplying the mean value of a specific livestock by its respective tropical livestock unit
  4. bHours are stated on a weekly basis;
  5. Ghana cedis (gh¢) and 1$ = gh¢ 3.8148, as at January 2016