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Table 4 Adoption regression results

From: Adoption of complementary climate-smart agricultural technologies: lessons from Lushoto in Tanzania

Explanatory variables Multivariate probit estimates Univariate probit estimates
Crop diversification Fertilizer Pesticide/herbicide Crop diversification Fertilizer Pesticide/herbicide
Household characteristics
 Age of household head − 0.005 (0.002)** − 0.001 (0.002) − 0.003 (0.002) − 0.004 (0.002)** − 0.001 (0.002) − 0.003 (0.02)
 Gender of household head 0.05 (0.08) 0.16 (0.07)** 0.21 (0.069)*** 0.04 (0.08) 0.18 (0.07)*** 0.23 (0.07)***
 Education of household head − 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) − 0.02 (0.01)** -0.01 (0.01) − 0.001 (0.01) − 0.02 (0.01)**
 Household size 0.04 (0.01)** 0.03 (0.01)** 0.03 (0.014)** 0.04 (0.015)** 0.03 (0.01)** 0.03 (0.01)**
Household Socio-economic factors
 Importance of crop farming 0.03 (0.02) -0.01 (0.02) 0.0002 (0.02) 0.02 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.0001 (0.07)
 Importance of livestock 0.01 (0.03) -0.03 (0.02) − 0.05 (0.03)* 0.01 (0.03) − 0.03 (0.02) − 0.05 (0.03)**
 Land size 0.10 (0.03)*** 0.06 (0.03)** 0.09 (0.03)*** 0.11 (0.03)*** 0.06 (0.03)** 0.09 (0.03)***
 Income 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.007)* − 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.007)* − 0.001 (0.007)
 Social capital − 0.01 (0.07) 0.08 (0.07) 0.09 (0.067) − 0.01 (0.07) 0.08 (0.07) 0.1 (0.07)
 Access to credit 0.02 (0.09) − 0.01 (0.09) 0.001 (0.09) 0.03 (0.09) − 0.02 (0.09) − 0.01 (0.08)
 Received weather information 0.21 (0.08)*** 0.05 (0.07) 0.14 (0.067)** 0.22 (0.08)*** 0.04 (0.07) 0.13 (0.07)**
 Previous use of fertilizer   0.17 (0.07)**    0.22 (0.08)***  
\({\rho }_{12}\) 0.44 (0.1)***      
\({\rho }_{13}\) 0.47 (0.09)***      
\({\rho }_{23}\) 0.66 (0.07)***      
 Likelihood ratio test \({x}^{2}\left(34\right)=88.75\) \(Prob>{x}^{2}=0.0000\)    
 Number of observations 258      
  1. The results show adoption propensities. Standard errors are in parentheses
  2. *, **, and *** indicate significance at 10%, 5% and 1%, respectively