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Table 1 Threats to global biodiversity and their impacts

From: Impact of climate change on biodiversity and food security: a global perspective—a review article

Factors Impacts on biodiversity Sources
Habitat loss and fragmentation Decrease in natural habitat, homogenization of species composition, fragmentation of landscapes, and soil degradation [40, 67]
Invasive alien species Competition with and predation on native species
Changes in ecosystem function
Extinctions and Homogenization
[28, 37]
Overexploitation Genetic contamination
Extinctions and decreased populations
Alien species introduced after resource depletion
[28, 37]
Climate change Homogenization and changes in ecosystem functioning
Expansion or contraction of species ranges
[28, 37]
Pollution Changes in species compositions and interactions
Higher mortality rates
Nutrient loading and acidification
[28, 37]
Anthropogenic threats species extinction
Habitat loss and conversion
Degradation and fragmentation
Over Harvesting
[82, 83]