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Table 8 Mean and standard deviation of the studied indicators

From: The role of rural–urban linkages in perceived environmental effects of farmers for participation in sustainable food security plans

  Dimensions and main indicators Mean Standard deviation
Rural–urban linkages People flow 2.48 0.950
Goods and services flow 2.47 1.117
Innovation flow 2.48 0.949
Information flow 2.53 1.064
Capital flow 2.51 1.101
Total 2.40 0.760
Empowerment affected by rural–urban linkages Training 2.68 1.207
Knowledge and skills 2.67 1.191
Accessing resources 2.36 1.168
Institutionalism 2.63 1.286
Total 2.52 0.898
Perceived environmental impacts Perceived environmental–ecological effects 2.50 0.847
Perceived political–cultural effects 2.35 0.938
Perceived socio-economic effects 2.26 0.993
Total 2.53 0.886
Participation in sustainable food security plans Participation in investment to diversify production 2.22 1.130
Participation in improve the infrastructure of agricultural and non-agricultural production 2.32 1.174
Participation in process products 2.18 1.159
Participation in market products 2.39 1.194
Total 2.32 1.089
  1. Source: Research findings, 2020