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Table 5 Process of indexing the concept of perceived environmental impacts, farmers' participation, and sustainable food security

From: The role of rural–urban linkages in perceived environmental effects of farmers for participation in sustainable food security plans

Latent variable Observed variables PLS Researches
Perceived environmental–ecological effects Improving the soil, suitable cultivated lands, water resources and suitable transmission and utilization infrastructure GQ1 Echebiri et al. (2017) [3];
Moa (2013) [15]; Sharaunga et al. (2016) [52]; Diiro et al. (2018) [14]; Fahsbender et al. (2020) [16]; Chi et al. (2007) [92]
Improving the growing of plant species, native seeds, and products compatible with the region GQ2
Improving access to natural, fresh, healthy (organic) food GQ3
Improving the safety of resources and food and reducing environmental pollutants GQ4
perceived political–cultural effects Improving incentive policies to promote planting technology, harvesting and food diversity, and innovative initiatives in this area HQ1
Improving policy-making in line with the cultivation pattern of each region and adjusted to market needs HQ2
Achieving an increased level of nutritional literacy HQ3
Achieving product packaging and appropriate methods of long-term storage of products HQ4
Achieving self-reliance in the production of basic goods and maintaining and improving the soil after production HQ5
Stability in low food price fluctuations HQ6
Perceived socio-economic effects Providing facilities, seeds, fertilizers and the appropriate quantity and quality of available food IQ1
Exploitation systems to develop the production of agricultural products for domestic and foreign markets IQ2
Activities of rural organizations and cooperatives to create new mechanized agricultural systems IQ3
Social participation to change traditional operating systems to new ones IQ4
Stability in low price fluctuations in food consumption and increase production efficiency IQ5
Participation in sustainable food security plans Participation in investment to diversify production JQ1 Thilmany et al. (2013)[88]
Yahaya et al. (2017) [94]
Zbinden and Lee (2005) [93]
Eugenio et al. (2017) [91]
Hilhorst and Guijt (2006) [80]
Hiemstra (2012) [84]
Participation in improve the infrastructure of agricultural and non-agricultural production JQ2
Participation in process products JQ3
Participation to market products JQ4
  1. Source: A review of the related literature, 2020