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Table 4 Latent and observed variables of the empowerment process affected by rural–urban linkages

From: The role of rural–urban linkages in perceived environmental effects of farmers for participation in sustainable food security plans

Effective component
(Latent variable)
Observed variables Symbol Researches
People flow An urban and rural specialist workforce AQ1 Tacoli et al. (2013) [17]
Moa (2013) [15]
Burchi and De Muro (2007) [70]; Nwokolo (2015) [72]; Echebiri et al. (2017) [3]
Douglass (1998) [1]
Balakrishnan (2005) [2]
Targeting institutionalism
Goods and services flow Agricultural services and production support AQ2
Transportation of products
Innovation flow Innovation in production AQ3
Branding and marketing
Innovation in product supply
Information flow workshops AQ4
ICT
Capital flow Investing in formal and informal resources AQ5
Production and service investment
Economic organizations and enterprises and microcredit
Empowerment Training Specialized training in promoting the production of new and higher quality products BQ1 Akkoyunlu (2015) [4]; Fahsbender et al. (2020) [16]; Galièa et al. (2019) [74]; Diiro et al. (2018) [14]
Ramos and Prideaux (2014) [69];
Rowlands (1995) [77]
Productive and non-productive training to improve the knowledge and scientific and technical skills of farmers BQ2
Holding training courses to turn traditional and subsistence agriculture into industrial and competitive and informing them BQ3
Knowledge and skills Knowledge and information and skills relating to agricultural and non-agricultural production CQ1
Knowledge and information and skills related to production and service activities CQ2
Accessing resources Accessing to environmental resources such as water, fertile soil and suitable land DQ1
Accessing to formal and informal financial resources DQ2
Accessing to local organizations and institutions, social networks to offer products and exchange information DQ3
Accessing to product transportation networks DQ4
Institutionalism Urban organizations in connecting to villages EQ1
Formal and informal urban institutions interacting with rural and agricultural institutions EQ2
Integrating land management through a partnership with legal organizations EQ3
  1. Source: A review of the related literature, 2020