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Table 3 Sustainable food security variables

From: The role of rural–urban linkages in perceived environmental effects of farmers for participation in sustainable food security plans

Variable The main dimensions Index  
Sustainable food security Environmental–ecological Availability - Suitable soil and suitable lands for growing crops
  - Water resources and infrastructure for proper and sustainable use and transfer of water
  - Favorable climate for crops
  - Plant species, native seeds, and local produce
  - Water and soil resources are not protected
  -Reasonable exploitation without maintaining the quality of resources
  -Improper cultivation with the ecological environment of the region
  - Farmers' awareness of the principles of sustainability
  -Protecting resources from environmental pollution
  Access - Access to natural and healthy food (organic)
  - Access to fresh food
  -Access to food hygiene
  - Access to local food consistent with people's tastes
  - Access to products by the principles of regional sustainability
  Utilization - Utilization of healthy and organic foods
  - Utilization of seeds and seedlings suitable for growing crops
  - Improvement in the quantity and quality of agricultural lands
  - Progress in the amount and quality of gardens and farms
  - Controlling and managing land use conservation
  - Improper use of fertilizers and chemical toxins
  Stability - Stability in the proper use of resources
  - Stability in reducing the threatening environmental pollution
  - Stability in resource and food safety
  - Stability in increasing the level of environmental health
  - Stability in harvesting at the right time
  - Stability in the optimal use of fertilizers and chemical pesticides
  - Stability in controlling and managing land use conservation
  - Stability in the proper use of resources
  - Stability in reducing the threatening environmental pollution
  - Stability in resource and food safety
  - Stability in increasing the level of environmental health
  - Stability in harvesting at the right time
  - Stability in the optimal use of fertilizers and chemical pesticides
  - Stability in controlling and managing land use conservation
  Socio-Economic Availability - Adequate quantity and quality of available food
  - Availability to improve production efficiency
  - Facilities, seeds, and fertilizers
  -Availability to provide insurance and compensation
  - Availability to provide services and facilities for manufacturers to create, upgrade and empower production
  - Availability to upgrade manufacturers' confidence to have a good consumer market
  -Availability to improve the exploitation system to develop the production of products for domestic and foreign markets
  Access - Low cost of access to food
  - Sufficient household income to buy the food needed
  - Decreasing production costs
  - Access markets to sell products
  - Reduce local production
  - Access to conversion industries
  - Access to fair prices in the distribution of products
  - Access to eliminate items such as food hoarding
  - Social participation to change the systems of exploitation from traditional to new systems
  Utilization - Low fluctuations in food prices
  - Adequate household savings to buy food in case of emergency
  - Quantitative and qualitative development of horticultural, agricultural, and livestock products
  - Low vulnerability to food consumption required in economic fluctuations during the year
  Stability - Stability in low fluctuations in food prices
  - Stability in increasing production efficiency
  - Stability in the availability of food needed by the household
  - Stability in the provision of facilities, seeds, and fertilizers
  - Stability in increasing local production
  Political-Cultural Availability - Policy-making and planning to increase support from urban centers
  - Implementation of policies and support programs for insurance, marketing, advertising, branding, financial facilities
  - Incentive policies to promote planting, holding, and harvesting technologies
  - Implementation of transportation programs for agricultural products to national and global levels
  - Planning to increase the efficiency of food supply centers
  - Food diversity and innovative initiatives in agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, and aquaculture
  - Use of appropriate technologies for food production
  - Livestock and poultry management using modern methods
  - Education and awareness of the local community and stakeholders in the direction of environmental sustainability
  - Preservation and promotion of indigenous knowledge
  - Entrepreneurship and sustainable employment policies in the field of agriculture and related to agriculture
  - Implementation of policies to increase territorial justice to achieve food products
  - Policy-making and planning to price agricultural products considering the interests of producer and consumer groups
  - Implementation of policies to remove intermediaries and dealers from the process of marketing products
  - Crop cultivation pattern suitable for each region and by market needs
  Access - Access to research and educational services to farmers
  - Access to increase nutritional literacy levels
  - Access to improve product packaging
  - Access to improve product branding
  - Access to self-reliance in the production of essential goods
  - Access to food without suffering mental and physical harm
  - Sense of social justice in access to food among the people
  - Access to proper methods of long-term storage of products
  Utilization - Food culture and local products
  - Increase in local production
  - Knowledge about the quality of food consumed
  - Low waste of food products
  - The proper diet of family members
  - Awareness of the various benefits of food
  - Appropriate diet plan for family members to consume during the week
  Stability - Stability consumption of a variety of foods needed by households throughout the year
  - Stability in incentive policies to upgrade machinery and equipment technology
  - Stability in livestock management using modern methods
  - Stability in soil maintenance and improvement after production
  - Stability in low fluctuations in food prices
  Infrastructure Availability - Sufficient food supply centers
  - Availability to enhance the situation of agricultural lands in micro-lands
  - Availability to improve resource management (water, soil)
  - Availability to the improvement of production infrastructure
  - Availability to improve the quantity and quality of agricultural and non-agricultural lands
  - Availability to improve product storage centers
  - Product packaging centers
  - Availability to upgrade product transfer centers
  - Access to agricultural, horticultural, livestock, and aquaculture inputs
  Access - Access to improve production efficiency through integration
  - Access to greenhouse inputs
  - Access to cultivation patterns appropriate to available water resources, production capacities, and climatic conditions
  - Access to proper machinery
  - Accessibility to improve access to food
  Utilization - Utilization to improve storage, processing, distribution, and transportation
  -Knowledge about the quality of food consumed
  Stability - Stability in the adequacy of food supply centers
  - Stability in equipping and renovating farms and gardens
  - Stability in improving natural resource management
  - Stability in access to production inputs
  1. Source: [A review of the related literature, 2020, 3, 14,15,16, 48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65]