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Table 2 A compilation of indicators from the FAO, together with those incorporating sustainability as the long-term time dimension to the domains of food security

From: The role of rural–urban linkages in perceived environmental effects of farmers for participation in sustainable food security plans

Food security domain
FAO suite of indicators for food security Additional indicators for sustainability
Availability - Average dietary energy supply Environment
Regional Adequacy
  - Average value of food production
  - Share of dietary energy supply derived from cereals, roots and tubers
  - Average protein supply
  - Average supply of protein of animal origin
Accessibility - Percentage of paved roads Economy
Household - Road density
  - Rail lines density
  - Domestic food price index
  - Prevalence of undernourishment
Utilization - Access to water sources Nutrition and health
Individual - Access to sanitation facilities
  - Child (under-5) anthropometry
Stability - Cereal import dependency ratio
Exposure/ - Percentage of arable land equipped for irrigation
Vulnerability - Value of food imports over total merchandise exports
Stability - Political stability and absence ofviolence/terrorism
Shock - Variability in the domestic food price level index
  - Variability in per capita food supply
  1. Source: [46, 47]