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Table 13 Path coefficients (beta), t-statistic, coefficient of determination, and result of research hypotheses

From: The role of rural–urban linkages in perceived environmental effects of farmers for participation in sustainable food security plans

Direct hypotheses Beta coefficients T value P value Result
Rural–urban flows and linkages- > Empowerment of farmers 0.735 27.728 0.000 Accept
Empowerment of farmers affected by rural–urban flows and linkages- > Perceived environmental–ecological effects of sustainable food security plans 0.336 7.214 0.000 Accept
Empowerment of farmers affected by rural–urban flows and linkages- > Perceived political–cultural effects of sustainable food security plans 0.759 33.183 0.000 Accept
Empowerment of farmers affected by rural–urban flows and linkages- > Perceived socio-economic effects of sustainable food security plans 0.840 54.001 0.000 Accept
Perceived environmental–ecological effects by farmers on the implementation of food security plans- > Their participation in sustainable food security plans 0.012 0.512 0.609 Reject
Perceived political–cultural effects by farmers on the implementation of food security plans—> Their participation in sustainable food security plans − 0.025 0.680 0.497 Reject
Perceived socioeconomic effects by farmers on the implementation of food security plans—> Their participation in sustainable food security plans − 0.310 5.628 0.000 Accept
Empowerment affected by rural–urban linkages—> Participation in sustainable food security 1.155 21.626 0.000 Accept
  1. Source: Research findings, 2020