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Table 5 Physical parameters of the breads produced

From: Fortification with mushroom flour (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm) and substitution of wheat flour by cassava flour in bread-making: Nutritional and technical implications in eastern DR Congo

Flour formulations Specific volume (cm3/g) Average crust thickness (cm3) Color
L* a* b*
F1 2.375ab 0.566ab 33.2ab 26.3bcd 19.8 bcd
F2 3.037a 0.6ab 40.6a 24.6 cd 15.4d
F3 1.620b 0.566ab 21.5b 17.1d 36.1ab
F4 2.381ab 0.7a 30.1ab 21.2 cd 13.6d
F5 2.344ab 0.6ab 32.2ab 35.1abc 18.9 cd
F6 1.514b 0.5ab 23.2b 22.8 cd 40.3a
RC (F7) 2.211ab 0.433b 34.7ab 43.3b 32.2 abc
AC (F8) 3.528a 0.333b 31.9ab 40.7ab 23.2bcd
F-value 6.99 50.11 6.45 5.43 4.95
p-value  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.0014 0.0159 0.0251
Tukey HSD 1.4 0.241 15.01 14.94 16.46
  1. The values in each column followed by different letters are statistically different at the 5% p-value threshold according to the Tukey HSD test. Italicized values represent p-values at 5% significance threshold
  2. L* lightness, a* balance “red–green”, b* balance “yellow–blue”. F formulation, RC relative control, AC absolute control