Skip to main content

Table 9 Estimated Poisson and ZIP model of household food security in Nigeria

From: Women empowerment, Land Tenure and Property Rights, and household food security among smallholders in Nigeria

Explanatory variables USDA household food security HDDS
Poisson 1 IV Poisson Poisson 2 z ZIP Count* ZIP Inflate Poisson
Coef z Coef z Coef Coef z Coef z Coef z
Extension contact (access = 1) − 0.083*** − 2.92 − 0.305*** − 2.79 − 0.084*** − 2.94 − 0.103*** − 3.57 − 0.138 − 0.65 − 5.90E−05 0.00
Age of head 0.013* 1.90 − 0.008 − 0.09 0.013* 1.89 0.003 0.37 − 0.065 − 1.36 0.001 0.10
Age squared − 8.30E−05 − 1.22 0.000 0.16 − 8.2E−05 − 1.21 2.31E−05 0.33 0.001 1.35 − 1.70E−05 − 0.24
Education of head (schooling years) − 0.001 − 0.27 − 0.009 − 0.59 − 0.001 − 0.26 0.001 0.40 0.011 0.63 0.006*** 2.73
Gender of head (female = 1) − 0.061 − 1.03 0.207 0.32 − 0.060 − 1.00 0.068 1.14 0.526 1.41 0.035 0.63
Head is single 0.267** 2.31 − 0.285 − 0.31 0.269** 2.32 0.220* 1.88 − 0.394 − 0.35 − 0.209 − 1.43
Head is widowed/divorced − 0.426*** − 2.80 − 0.471 − 0.56 − 0.425*** − 2.79 − 0.416*** − 2.70 0.101 0.13 0.001 0.01
Head works off-farm − 2.37E−07*** − 4.47 − 2.10E−07 − 0.89 − 2.41E−07*** − 4.55 − 1.01E−07** − 1.97 4.69E−07* 1.86 − 3.40E−09 − 0.08
Household size − 0.001 − 0.04 − 0.001 − 0.09 − 0.001 − 0.06 − 0.001 − 0.37 − 0.004 − 0.22 0.002 0.79
Dependent ratio − 0.007 − 0.91 − 0.032 − 0.44 − 0.007 − 0.93 − 0.002 − 0.23 0.040 0.71 − 0.020** − 2.44
North central dummy 0.098*** 2.46 0.199 0.85 0.095** 2.39 0.090** 2.25 0.019 0.07 0.026 0.65
Northeast dummy 0.312*** 6.55 0.404** 2.08 0.312*** 6.55 0.255*** 5.29 − 0.350 − 0.84 − 0.403*** − 6.79
Southeast dummy 0.272*** 5.43 0.216 1.17 0.271*** 5.41 0.127** 2.52 − 1.114** − 2.14 − 0.309*** − 5.48
South-south dummy − 0.005 − 0.10 − 0.3148 − 1.18 − 0.006 − 0.12 − 0.094* − 1.77 − 0.611 − 1.45 − 0.007 − 0.14
South west dummy − 0.144*** − 2.97 0.1574 0.75 − 0.1512*** − 3.12 − 0.1122** − 2.32 0.249 0.77 0.167*** 3.97
Constant 1.8*** 10.38 2.7814 1.15 1.8035*** 10.40 2.1319*** 12.07 − 0.815 − 0.67 1.736*** 10.30
LR Chi sq. (36) 295.49     293.58   192.87     241.06  
Log likelihood − 3446.63     − 3447.58   − 2733.12     − 232.36  
  1. + Instrumented: Credit Amount; Instruments: FreeholdRightReg Offfarmincome Maize Farmsize_Ha LowLand SI SDI MaizeFarmSize MaizeLowLand MaizeSI
  2. Poisson 1: Poisson with credit; MaizeSDI Purchased Leased_rented Communal FemAchmtAsset FemAchmtGrpMem FemAchmtProDec
  3. Poisson 2: Poisson without credit; FemAchmtIncCon FemAchmtCredit FemAchmtWork Parity_dummy Extensioncontact Age AgeSq SchlgYr
  4. ZIP Count*: ZIP Count without credit. Gender Never_married Ever_married HHSize DepRatio NC NE SE SS SW Native PHCN CoopSociety
  5. ***, **, * represent statistical significance at 1%, 5% & 10%