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Table 8 Estimated Poisson and ZIP Models of Household Food Security in Nigeria

From: Women empowerment, Land Tenure and Property Rights, and household food security among smallholders in Nigeria

Explanatory variables USDA household food security HDDS
Poisson 1 IV Poisson Poisson 2 ZIP Count* ZIP Inflate Poisson
Coef z Coef z Coef z Coef z Coef z Coef z
Maize − 0.076 − 1.45 − 0.239 − 0.92 − 0.074 − 1.42 − 0.003 − 0.05 0.515 1.27 − 0.012 − 0.22
Farm size (Ha) 0.004** 2.48 0.011*** 2.25 0.004** 2.49 0.004** 2.57 0.006 0.43 0.000 0.17
Lowland share of farmland − 0.095** − 2.41 − 0.207 − 1.33 − 0.095** − 2.39 − 0.019 − 0.47 0.516 1.58 − 0.057 − 1.45
Simpson Index (land fragmentation) 0.048 0.76 0.036 0.15 0.049 0.77 − 0.050 − 0.78 − 0.599 − 1.20 0.047 0.76
Simpson Diversity Index (crop diversity) − 0.243** − 2.36 − 0.380 − 0.87 − 0.246** − 2.38 − 0.180* − 1.73 0.515 0.66 0.113 1.13
Maize × farm size − 0.014*** − 4.19 − 0.035 − 1.31 − 0.014*** − 4.23 − 0.012*** − 3.56 0.003 0.13 0.001 0.17
Maize × lowland 0.042 0.60 0.308 0.71 0.043 0.61 − 0.017 − 0.24 − 0.515 − 1.00 0.052 0.77
Maize × SI 0.101 1.00 0.407 0.56 0.096 0.96 0.127 1.27 0.362 0.50 − 0.017 − 0.18
Maize × SDI 0.275* 1.69 0.553 0.63 0.268 1.65 0.213 1.31 − 0.379 − 0.33 − 0.154 − 0.97
Share of farmland on purchase − 0.228*** − 5.50 − 0.185 − 0.71 − 0.232*** − 5.61 − 0.074* − 1.77 0.831*** 3.18 − 0.068* − 1.74
Leasehold share of farmland − 0.013 − 0.33 0.039 0.25 − 0.013 − 0.32 − 0.039 − 0.98 − 0.148 − 0.47 0.047 1.27
Communal share of farmland − 0.037 − 0.77 0.150 0.51 − 0.039 − 0.82 − 0.036 − 0.75 0.103 0.29 0.016 0.35
Registered × freehold share − 0.012 − 0.23 − 0.018 − 0.06 − 0.012 − 0.22 − 0.030 − 0.55 − 0.130 − 0.31 0.056 1.10
Credit amount − 4.4E− 08 − 1.28 − 0.002 − 0.02 −  −  −  −  −  −  1.7E− 08 0.86
Female achievement in asset − 0.004 − 0.12 0.012 0.10 − 0.002 − 0.07 − 0.006 − 0.21 0.021 0.09 0.052* 1.84
Female achiev. group membership − 0.103*** − 3.24 0.082 0.56 − 0.105*** − 3.29 − 0.081** − 2.56 0.161 0.67 0.058* 1.89
Female achiev. productive decisions 0.048 1.59 0.038 0.19 0.05 1.64 0.052* 1.70 − 0.032 − 0.14 0.003 0.12
Female achiev. over control of income − 0.075** − 2.45 − 0.015 − 0.11 − 0.075** − 2.44 − 0.116*** − 3.74 − 0.233 − 0.99 0.031 1.06
Female achievement in credit 0.071** 2.04 1.658*** 4.35 0.068* 1.96 0.075** 2.18 0.093 0.37 0.019 0.56
Female achievement in workload − 0.058* − 1.83 0.126 0.58 − 0.059* − 1.88 − 0.058* − 1.84 0.002 0.01 0.054* 1.69
Parity (Parity = 1) 0.115*** 3.16 − 0.583*** − 3.34 0.118*** 3.25 0.181*** 4.93 0.389 1.42 − 0.064* − 1.81
  1. +Instrumented: Credit Amount; Instruments: FreeholdRightReg Offfarmincome Maize Farmsize_Ha LowLand SI SDI MaizeFarmSize MaizeLowLand MaizeSI
  2. Poisson 1: Poisson with credit; MaizeSDI Purchased Leased_rented Communal FemAchmtAsset FemAchmtGrpMem FemAchmtProDec
  3. Poisson 2: Poisson without credit; FemAchmtIncCon FemAchmtCredit FemAchmtWork Parity_dummy Extensioncontact Age AgeSq SchlgYr
  4. ZIP Count*: ZIP Count without credit. Gender Never_married Ever_married HHSize DepRatio NC NE SE SS SW Native PHCN CoopSociety
  5. ***, **, * represent statistical significance at 1%, 5% & 10%