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Table 1 Definitions of study variables and their descriptive statistics

From: Women empowerment, Land Tenure and Property Rights, and household food security among smallholders in Nigeria

Variables Descriptive statistics
Min Max Mean Std Dev.
Dependent variables
 Household dietary diversity score (number of food groups consumed) 1.00 12.00 6.39 2.53
 Household food security score (number of affirmative responses) 0.00 18.00 6.93 5.48
Land tenure and property rights variables
 Cultivating maize only (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.39 0.49
 Farm size (Ha) 0.06 134.50 5.93 8.99
 Lowland share of farmland 0.00 1.00 0.49 0.45
 Simpson Index (land fragmentation) 0.00 0.96 0.25 0.28
 Simpson Diversity Index (crop diversity) 0.00 0.67 0.12 0.16
 Maize × farm size 0.00 120.00 2.48 7.23
 Maize × lowland 0.00 1.00 0.09 0.25
 Maize × SI 0.00 0.96 0.11 0.23
 Maize × SDI 0.00 0.67 0.05 0.11
 Purchased share of farmland 0.00 1.00 0.18 0.35
 Leasehold share of farmland 0.00 1.00 0.19 0.37
 Communal share of farmland 0.00 1.00 0.10 0.28
 Registered × freehold share 0.00 1.00 0.09 0.24
 Credit amount 0.00 1,800,000 97,783.72 557,487.40
Empowerment variables
 Female achievement in asset 0.00 1.00 0.53 0.50
 Female achievement in group membership (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.60 0.49
 Female achievement in productive decision (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.63 0.48
 Female achievement over control of income (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.48 0.50
 Female achievement in credit (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.16 0.37
 Female achievement in workload (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.76 0.43
 Parity (parity = 1) 0.00 1.00 0.32 0.47
Other controls
 Extension contact (at least once = 1; none = 0) 0.00 1.00 0.69 0.46
 Age of head (years) 18.00 85.00 46.01 11.57
 Age squared 324.00 7225.00 2252.24 1131.14
 Education of head (schooling years) 0.00 18.00 7.81 5.85
 Gender of head (female = 1, male = 0) 0.00 1.00 0.07 0.25
 Head is single (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.01 0.10
 Head is widowed/divorced (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.01 0.11
 Head works off-farm (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.59 0.49
 Household size (number of people) 1.00 42.00 9.51 5.90
 Dependent ratio 0.00 17.00 1.61 1.71
 Location is North central (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.17 0.37
 Location is Northeast (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.08 0.27
 Location is Southeast (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.09 0.29
 Location is South-south (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.08 0.28
 Location is South west (1 if yes, 0 otherwise) 0.00 1.00 0.18 0.39