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Table 2 Components and indicators affecting the realization of food security

From: Food security assessment in rural areas: evidence from Iran

Components Variables ID code Sources
Economic Housing quality E1 Sarlio-Lahteenkorva and Lahelma [44]; Studdert et al. [41]; Bedeke [60]
Housing ownership E2
Arable land area E3
The amount of savings E4
Number of small and large livestock E5
The amount of income earned from the agricultural sector E6
Job variety of household E7
Benefiting from banking facilities E8
Social Age of household head E9 Nord [58]; Sugie [62] Coleman-Jensen [63]; Cox and Wallace [64]
Literacy level E10
Dependency burden (the number of individuals to support in the family) E11
Size of family E12
Number of children E13
Structural-spatial Number of visits to the city E14 Browne et al. [65]
The extent of urban–rural relations E15
Investment of urban people in villages E16
Going to the city for employment E17
Selling products to urban intermediaries E18
Going to the city to receive general services (educational, health, cultural, and welfare) E19
The number of visits to buy food in the city E20
Selling manufactured products without intermediaries and directly to the city E21
Access Unavailability of food needed by the household E22 Lima [66]; Food Security Network [67]
Lack of availability of various foods E23
Insufficient food supply centers E24
Appropriate quantity and quality of food available in village retail stores E25
Access to organic food and non-transgenic products E26
Access to appropriate technologies for food production E27
The high cost of access to food E28
Accessibility Insufficient income to buy food E29 Audsley et al. [69]; WRAP [70]; Schmidinger and Stehfest [71]
Insufficient income to diversify the diet E30
Lack of government cooperation in easy access to food throughout the year for the lower economic classes of the village E31
Lack of access to food without suffering psychological damage E32
Lack of sense of social justice in access to food among the people E33
Consumption Awareness of the quality of food consumed E34 Sim et al. (2006); Edwards-Jones et al. [73]
Low food waste E35
Awareness of proper diet of family members E36
Lack of proper diet for the family during the week E37
Lack of proper nutrition for children during the week E38
Stability Instability in household food consumption throughout the year E39 Sim et al. (2006); Edwards-Jones et al. [73]
Instability in the consumption of various foods throughout the year E40
Lack of stable income for food consumption throughout the year E41