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Table 5 Multilevel ordinal regression of food insecurity (using the summative food insecurity scale based on FAO/FIES scale 1–5, where 1 represents lower level of food insecurity and 5 represents higher level of food insecure)

From: Gendered determinants of food insecurity in ongoing regional conflicts, North and South Kivu, the Democratic Republic of Congo

Variables Odds ratio 95% Confidence interval p-value
Age 1.045 0.988 1.105 0.118
Age squared 0.999 0.998 0.999 0.037
Education
 No education (reference) 1    
 Primary 0.764 0.519 1.126 0.174
 Secondary 0.594 0.403 0.877 0.009
 University 0.664 0.356 1.239 0.199
 Number of children 1.052 0.998 1.108 0.056
Wealth perception
 Same (reference) 1    
 Much richer 0.238 0.063 0.895 0.034
 Somewhat richer 0.351 0.239 0.518 0.0001
 Somewhat poorer 3.314 2.506 4.384 0.0001
 Much poorer 5.660 3.746 8.551 0.0001
 Married 1.611 0.927 2.800 0.090
Income-generating activities
 None(reference) 1    
 Employment 1.565 1.179 2.078 0.002
 Self-employment 2.266 1.484 3.452 0.0001
 Urban (reference) 1    
 Rural 0.483 0.326 0.714 0.0001
 Decision-making in the couple 0.687 0.538 0.877 0.003
Breadwinner
Myself (reference)
 Husband/partner 1.283 0.880 1.869 0.194
 Someone else(relative) 1.272 0.712 2.272 0.416
Relation to the head
 Herself (reference) 1    
 Partner/husband 0.633 0.399 1.004 0.052
 Relative 1.357 0.684 2.690 0.382
 Violence scale 1.296 1.054 1.594 0.014
 Cut 1 − 1.656 − 0.422   − 2.891
 Cut 2 − 0.606 − 0.621   − 1.833
 Cut 3 0.086 1.314   − 1.141
 Cut 4 0.686 1.916   − 0.542
Village var(cons) 0.540 0.895   0.326
  1. Significant results (p < 0.05) are presented in italic