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Table 7 Variables of the models and their hypothesized relationships on technology adoption, plot-level crop productivity and smallholders’ commercialization.

From: Does fertilizer adoption enhance smallholders’ commercialization? An endogenous switching regression model from northern Ethiopia

VariableVariables’ descriptionUnitPrior expectation on
Fertilizer adoptionProductivityMarketed surplus
Fert_adopAdoption of fertilizer (yes = 1, 0 otherwise)Dummy ++
psexF1Gender of the household head (female = 1)Dummy
pageAge of the household headYears±±±
peduHEducational status (illiterate = 1, 0 = otherwise)Dummy±±±
FamsizeFamily size of householdNumber++±
male_adultMale adultsNumber++±
female_adultFemale adultsNumber++±
Oxen_qtyOxen ownershipNumber+++
TLU_NoxNon-ox Tropical LivestockTLU+++
AcceinfoAccess to information (yes = 1)Dummy+++
Ownland_haHousehold owns land sizeHectare±±+
Acces_irrgAccess to irrigation (yes = 1)Dummy+++
distmkt_hrDistance to nearby marketHour
distanceto~tDistance to plotHour
SRF_3yrmeanRainfall of previous 3 years to cropping seasonMillimeter+  
SstdevRF_3~nRainfall std. dev of previous 3 years to cropping seasonMillimeter  
RFcuproRainfall of cropping seasonMillimeter+++