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Table 5 Determinants of marketed surplus with and without fertilizer adoption (log of marketed surplus): an endogenous switching regression model.

From: Does fertilizer adoption enhance smallholders’ commercialization? An endogenous switching regression model from northern Ethiopia

VariablesAdoptersNon-adopters
Head’s gender (female = 1)− 0.060 (0.302)1.259*** (0.421)
Head’s age (years)− 0.026*** (0.008)− 0.013 (0.010)
Head’s education (illiterate = 1)0.108 (0.257)− 0.080 (0.493)
Family size (number)− 0.166** (0.081)0.206 (0.152)
Male adult (number)− 0.106 (0.120)− 0.262 (0.227)
Female adult (number)− 0.109 (0.129)− 0.087 (0.216)
Oxen owned (number)0.498*** (0.167)0.515** (0.241)
Non-ox Tropical Livestock unit (TLU)− 0.055 (0.046)0.107* (0.0619)
Distance to district office (hour)− 0.291 (0.256)0.526 (0.419)
Distance to nearby market (hour)0.094 (0.141)− 0.21 (0.181)
Second tercile land owned (ha)0.949*** (0.313)1.213** (0.5809
Third tercile land owned (ha)1.537*** (0.312)1.188* (0.6219)
Access to irrigation (yes = 1)1.064*** (0.264)− 0.235 (0.425)
Constant11.27*** (0.685)6.670*** (1.199)
Inverse Millis Ratio one (λ1)− 1.521 (0.765) 
Inverse Millis Ratio one (λ0) − 0.186 (0.603)
Predicted marketed surplus10.326 (1.059)9.775 (0.980)
Significant difference of predicted marketed surplus of adaptors–non-adopters observation0.550*** (0.094) 
Number of observations440186
  1. First trices are used a base for land ownership category
  2. ***, ** level of significance at 1 and 5%, respectively