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Table 4 Factors affecting plot-level productivity (log value of crop produced per hectare).

From: Does fertilizer adoption enhance smallholders’ commercialization? An endogenous switching regression model from northern Ethiopia

VariablesModel 1Model 2Model 3
Instrument: distance to plot (hour)− 0.776*** (0.266)− 0.263 (0.173) 
Log of fertilizer used (kg/ha) 0.228*** (0.037)0.646*** (0.093)
Residual from first stage  − 0.451*** (0.092)
Head’s gender (female = 1)− 0.597** (0.244)− 0.026 (0.152)0.193 (0.173)
Head’s age (years)0.009 (0.007)− 0.009** (0.005)− 0.013*** (0.005)
Head’s education (illiterate = 1)− 0.689*** (0.207)0.146 (0.140)0.471*** (0.152)
Family size (number)0.169** (0.067)0.126*** (0.044− 0.086 (0.055)
Male adult (number)0.189** (0.098)− 0.046 (0.065)− 0.106 (0.058)
Female adult (number)0.202** (0.107)− 0.0698 (0.071)0.193** (0.173)
Access to irrigation (yes = 1) 0.502*** (0.149)0.451*** (0.128)
Rainfall of production season 0.033 (0.021)0.024 (0.033)
Constant3.601*** (1.390)6.641*** (1.38)6.698*** (2.177)
Crop fixed effectYesYesYes
Plot characteristicsYesYesYes
District fixed effectYesYesYes
R2 0.22490.2404
Left censored observation186  
Uncensored observation440  
Prob > chi20.0000.00000.0000
Total observation626626626
  1. ***, **, **refers at 1, 5 and 10% level of significance. Numbers in parenthesis are standard errors bootstrapping with 4 400 replications
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