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Table 3 Factors affecting adoption of inorganic fertilizer (craggit models).

From: Does fertilizer adoption enhance smallholders’ commercialization? An endogenous switching regression model from northern Ethiopia

Explanatory variablesWithout endogenous variablesWith endogenous variables
Hurdle 1: probability of adoptionHurdle 2: log of fertilizer used (kg/ha)Hurdle 1: probability of adoptionHurdle 2: log of fertilizer used (kg/ha)
Head’s gender (female = 1)− 0.382*** (0.142)− 0.002 (0.081)− 0.341** (0.145)0.016 (0.081)
Head’s age (year)0.004 (0.004)0.002 (0.002)0.004 (0.004)0.002 (0.002)
Head’s education (illiterate = 1)− 0.435*** (0.130)− 0.110* (0.065)− 0.406*** (0.131)− 0.112* (0.065)
Family size (number)0.083** (0.040)0.065** (0.021)0.062 (0.041)0.057*** (0.021)
Male adult (number)0.131** (0.063)− 0.019 (0.031)0.134** (0.063)− 0.022 (0.030)
Female adult (number)0.125** (0.066)0.011 (0.034)0.119* (0.067)0.010 (0.034)
Own land (ha)− 0.115 (0.084)0.087* (0.047)− 0.106 (0.085)0.092** (0.047)
Distance to farmers training center (hour)− 0.087 (0.077)− 0.070 (0.047)− 0.079 (0.078)− 0.067 (0.046)
Distance to district office (hour)0.054 (0.045)− 0.018 (0.027)0.059 (0.045)− 0.025 (0.027)
Plot distance (hour)− 0.427*** (0.154)− 0.121 (0.088)− 0.430*** (0.156)− 0.118 (0.087)
Mean rainfall rainy season of past 3 years (mm)− 0.016*** (0.006)0.008** (0.004)− 0.015** (0.006)0.009** (0.004)
Rainfall variability (std dev) of rainy season of past 3 years (mm)0.015 (0.031)− 0.020 (0.013)0.013 (0.031)− 0.024* (0.013)
Soil quality (medium = 1)− 0.155 (0.154)0.061 (0.083)− 0.135 (0.155)0.064 (0.082)
Soil quality (good = 1)0.047 (0.158)− 0.011 (0.085)0.089 (0.160)0.033 (0.086)
Crop type (leguminous = 1)− 0.059 (0.143)0.097 (0.074)− 0.106 (0.144)0.068 (0.074)
Crop type (vegetables = 1)− 0.692*** (0.215)− 0.097 (0.137)− 0.728*** (0.217)− 0.115 (0.137)
Soil type (Walka, Vertisol = 1)− 0.455** (0.231)0.155 (0.115)− 0.431** (0.235)0.177 (0.115)
Soil type (Hutsa, Leptosol = 1)− 0.202 (0.246)0.179 (0.115)− 0.183 (0.249)0.195* (0.115)
Soil type (Mekayhi, Luvisol = 1)− 0.690*** (0.254)0.118 (0.127)− 0.659** (0.258)0.130 (0.126)
Soil depth (deep = 1)0.102 (0.152)0.208*** (0.076)0.134 (0.154)0.222*** (0.077)
Soil depth (Steep = 1)− 0.018 (0.184)0.117 (0.101)− 0.036 (0.187)0.099 (0.100)
Oxen owned (number)  0.109* (0.061)0.097*** (0.033)
Access to irrigation (yes = 1)  − 0.019 (0.137)0.095 (0.073)
Access to information (yes = 1)  0.232 (0.149)− 0.039 (0.073)
District fixed effectYesYesYesYes
_cons1.927** (0.839)3.274 (0.456)1.693** (0.849)3.132*** (0.453)
sigma cons 0.655*** (0.022) 0.647*** (0.022)
AIC1597.589 1592.517 
BIC1886.147 1907.711 
Wald Chi2135.12 138.08 
Prob > Chi20.0000 0.0000 
Log-likelihood ratio− 731.73 − 725.25 
Total observation626440626440
  1. *, **, and *** are significant at 1, 5 and 10% significance levels, respectively. Numbers in parenthesis are robust 3 standard errors clustered at household
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