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Table 2 Description, measurement and statistics of explanatory variables

From: Does smallholder farmers’ awareness of Sustainable Development Goal 2 improve household food security in the Northern Region of Ghana?

Description (variable) Measurement Meana t-test
Aware (165) Not aware (120)
Food Insecurity Experience Score (FIES) 0 = food secure; 1–3 = mild food insecurity; 4–6 = moderate food insecurity; 7–9 = severe food insecurity 2.55 3.98 4.26***
Farmer characteristics
 Age Years 46.30 43.05 2.10**
 Sex 1 = male, 0 = female 0.93 0.68 5.48***
 Household size Number of people in a household 14.04 14.38 0.31
 Education of household head Years of education 2.46 1.75 1.38*
 Opinion leader 1 = opinion leader, 0 = otherwise 0.37 0.29 1.38*
 FBO membership 1 = member, 0 = otherwise 0.58 0.19 7.27***
 Engagement in off-farm 1 = engaged in off-farm activity, 0 = otherwise 0.68 0.58 1.64*
Information access variable
 Distance to district capital Kilometres (km) 5.07 7.08 3.78***
 Distance to regional capital Kilometres (km) 74.16 90.62 3.06***
 Training on animal production 1 = trained, 0 = not trained 0.15 0.08 1.81**
 Training on crop production 1 = trained, 0 = not trained 0.22 0.21 0.32
 Ownership of TV 1 = own TV, 0 = do not own TV 0.39 0.35 0.65
 Ownership of phone 1 = own phone, 0 = do not own phone 0.94 0.74 4.47***
 Ownership of radio 1 = own radio, 0 = do not own radio 0.82 0.63 3.73***
 E-extension contact 1 = yes, 0 = otherwise 0.51 0.18 6.18***
Wealth and welfare variables
 Animal diversity Numbers of species of animal reared 3.04 1.83 6.75
 Crop diversity Numbers of crops cultivated 3.01 2.42 3.50***
 Farm size Acres 11.34 7.10 4.42***
Institutional and policy variables
 Number of contacts with agricultural extension Numbers of contacts per year 1.57 0.94 2.80***
 Credit access 1 = access to credit, 0 = otherwise 0.48 0.23 4.75***
 Beneficiary of any NGO interventions 1 = yes, 0 = otherwise 0.48 0.19 4.42***
 Access to electronic extension 1 = yes, 0 = otherwise 0.51 0.18 6.18***
  1. aFor dummy variables, the values under the “mean” column describe the proportion of the respondents coded 1