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Table 2 Descriptive results. Mean values; standard deviations in parenthesis

From: Adoption of improved agricultural technology and its impact on household income: a propensity score matching estimation in eastern Ethiopia

  (1) (n = 119) (2) Non-users (n = 129) (3) t-test/\({{\varvec{\chi}}}^{2}\)-test
(p-value)
Outcome variable
 Farm income (Birr) 33,082.35 (11,692.80) 14,923.26 (21,289.41) –1.74 (0.042)**
Demographic variables
 Age (years) 39.98 (11.71) 36.4 (11.22) –2.45 (0.008) ***
 Male household heada 74.79 54.26 11.34 (0.001) ***
 Education (years) 3.57 (4.18) 2.53 (3.52) –2.12 (0.017)**
 Family size (number) 6.15 (1.98) 6.46 (2.54) 0.99 (0.838)
 Farming experience (years) 22.42 (11.24) 19.74 (10.50) –1.94 (0.027)**
Economic variables
 Livestock (Tropical Livestock Unit—TLU) 2.14 (1.58) 1.67 (1.61) –2.29 (0.011)**
 Land size (Hectare – ha) 0.91 (0.57) 0.78 (0.65) –1.61 (0.055)*
 Non-/off-farm income (Birr) 3034.27 (7871.68) 2852.56 (11,607.67) –0.14 (0.443)
 Access to irrigationa 32.77 31.01 0.09 (0.766)
 Soil and water conservation (SWC) practicesa 74.79 53.49 12.15 (0.000)***
 Asset value (Birr) 2929.24 (4583.34) 3288.72 (4166.50) 0.65 (0.741)
Institutional variables
 DAs visit (number) 1.44 (1.81) 1.77 (2.60) 1.15 (0.875)
 Participation in FTCsa 64.71 37.21 18.72 (0.000)***
 Cooperative participationa 25.21 17.83 2.01 (0.157)
 Credit accessa 18.49 17.05 0.09 (0.770)
 Access to market informationa 94.96 74.42 19.70 (0.000)***
 Market distance (kilometer—km) 0.58 (0.35) 0.81(0.96) 2.44 (0.992)
 Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) participationa 17.65 13.95 0.64 (0.430)
  1. *,**, *** indicate statistical significance at 10%, 5%, and 1% levels, respectively
  2. a Proportion (per cent) of the sample
  3. TLU  Tropical Livestock Unit, SWC  Soil and Water Conservation, DAs  Development Agents, FTCs   Farmers’ Training Centers, PSNP   Productive Safety Net Program