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Table 5 Average treatment effect of CSA adoption on food security and household income

From: The impact of climate smart agriculture on household welfare in smallholder integrated crop–livestock farming systems: evidence from Zimbabwe

Index Income Food security
Estimate Std Err. t value Estimate Std. Err. t value
ATT 0.713 0.016 43.72c 1.492 0.090 16.604c
ATU − 0.532 0.081 − 6.61c 0.370 0.297 1.245
ATE 0.642 0.022 29.52c 1.428 0.087 16.349c
  1. a, b, cA significance level of 10%, 5%, and 1%, respectively