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Table 4 Household Income ESR model results

From: The impact of climate smart agriculture on household welfare in smallholder integrated crop–livestock farming systems: evidence from Zimbabwe

Variable Selection equation (CSA adoption) outcome equation (log income)
Non-adopters Adopters
Coef. Robust Std. Err. Coef. Robust Std. Err. Coef. Robust Std. Err.
HH Education − 0.05 0.04 0.05a 0.30 0.02c 0.01
Labour size − 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.06 0.04c 0.01
Arable land size 0.14 0.11 − 0.06 0.07 0.02 0.01
TLU 0.25b 0.13 0.03 0.06 0.02b 0.01
Log crop income share    − 0.12 0.20 0.01 0.04
Log livestock income share    0.09 0.17 − 0.09b 0.04
Log non-agriculture income share    0.15 0.24 0.12b 0.04
Asset index    0.02 0.03 0.04c 0.01
HH age 0.01 0.02     
HH farm experience 0.11 0.01     
KM to extension 0.00 0.001     
Distance output market 0.004b 0.002     
Distance input market − 0.01b 0.01     
Local traders 0.02 0.01     
Group membership − 0.34 0.33     
Extension contact − 0.05b 0.02     
Access to weather forecasts 0.35 0.31     
Draft animals − 0.31 0.25     
Awareness CSA 0.05 0.29     
Communication asset ownership 0.78b 0.32     
Transport asset ownership − 0.50b 0.24     
Tillage implements − 0.45 0.43     
Fertile soil 0.99b 035     
Credit access 0.07 0.34     
_cons 1.65 1.17 1.01 0.98 1.81c 0.14
/lns0 − 0.77 0.39     
/lns1 − 0.78 0.07     
/r0 − 1.08 0.69     
/r1 − 1.29 0.96     
sigma0 0.46 0.18     
sigma1 1.46 0.03     
rho0 − 0.79 0.26     
rho1 − 0.86 0.25     
  1. a, b, cA significance level of 10%, 5%, and 1%, respectively